The Far Eastern Affairs N3, 2021

A new issue of the «Far Eastern Affairs» N3, 2021 has been released [e-version].


Russia-China Friendship Society

Melnikov I.I. Outstanding Experience of CPC is Heritage of Humanity

Round Table

Round table «100th Anniversary of CCP»


Song Zhihao. Chinese Private Security Companies: Possibilities of Their Activities in Central Asia


Salitskii A.I. Two Circuits: China’s Response to 2020 Challenge

Akimov A.V. Energy Balances of East Asian Countries Against the Background of Global Trends

Kranina E.I. The State Program of the People’s Republic of China on Countering Сlimate Change

State and Society

Grafov D.B. The Informal Ties in the Japanese Bureaucracy: the Challenge to Legalism and Impersonalism

Troshchinskiy P.V. New China’s First Civil Code: Problems of Theory and Practice

Shepenko R.A. Legal Regulation of Tax Relations Complicated by a Foreign Element in Taiwan

Savin S.Z., Kosykh N.E., Solodkaya E.V. State Strategies of Russia and China in the Mental Health Protection on the Example of Juvenile Depressions

View Point

Kozhukhova K.E. Strategic Сulture in Chinese Scientific Discourse

Theory and Methodology

Kuznetsov D.V. «Sharp Power» in the Modern Political Discourse of Western Countries and the Foreign Policy of Russia and China

Russian Far East

Fomin M.V., Bezverbny V.A., Seleznev I.A., Lukashenko E.A., Mikrykov N.Y., Miriazov T.R. Spatial Development of the Amur River Regions: Social Aspect

Scientific Events

Osetrova M.E., Polenova A.L., Semina L.I. On the 25th Conference of Russia and CIS Koreanists

Priupolina E. International Workshop Scientific Conference «Navigating Sino-Russian Relations in the 2010s: Role Claims and Mutual Expectations”

Kranina E.I. Annual All-Russian Scientific Conference Center for Socio-Economic Research of China IFES RAS «Socio-economic Results of the Implementation of the 13th Five-year Plan of the PRC (2016–2020) and the Tasks of the 14 Five-year Plan (2021–2025)»

Ikonnikova E.A., Dobrycheva A.A. «Education and Intercultural Dialogue in the Multilingual Asia-Pacific Region». I International Research-to-Practice Conference

Scholar Jubilee

Academician Vladimir Stepanovich Myasnikov Turns 90

Jubilee of Vadim Ivanovich Shabalin

Outstanding Experience of CPC is Heritage of Humanity

Ivan I. Melnikov

The victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia had a great impact on the advanced strata of Chinese society. Established in 1921, the CCP quickly gained credibility and spearheaded the Chinese people in the struggle for national independence and social progress. After the formation of the PRC, the implementation of socialist transformations and reforms under the leadership of the CPC, China became the second economy in the world, made great progress in the political, economic, social, scientific and other spheres. Today, the Chinese Communist Party is formulating global tasks that are important both for China and the world. Russia and China support the creation of a just and multipolar world order, their relations are becoming stronger and more trusting. The Russia-China Friendship Society plays an important role in the development of Russian-Chinese relations.

Chinese Private Security Companies: Possibilities of Their Activities in Central Asia

Song Zhihao

This article aims to analyze a few vectors of cooperation between China and the countries of Central Asia by focusing on the issue of anti-Chinese sentiment among local people of the region as one of the threats to the physical safety of Chinese citizens in the region. The article views activity of Chinese private security companies at the international level in general, and, in particular, the peculiarities of their functioning in Central Asia. Through comparison with Russian and American private military companies, the main advantages and disadvantages of Chinese companies are indicated and, accordingly, some recommendations are presented for the implementation of their competence in Central Asia.

Two Circuits: China’s Response to 2020 Challenge

Alexander I. Salitskii

In the beginning of the 2020 economic prospects for China looked rather gloomy. The rates of growth were slipping down, inflation soared, the country was facing capital flight and descending currency rate. The US pressed China into unbalanced trade agreement, which finally kicked off on 15 January. Another headache for Beijing was situation in Hong Kong, where after seven months of riots opposition won local elections. On top of all an unknown disease emerged in the city of Wuhan.

The article deals mainly with socio-economic story of China’s response to domestic and global situation during 2020 — first months of 2021. A matter of particular interest is a new frame of China’s position in the world economy.

In March 2020 despite epidemics and economic hardships, China started to work on five-year plan of socio-economic development for 2021–25 and development program for 2021–2035. Later, in May, not long before the delayed session of NPC Xi Jinping coined a concept of ‘two circuits’ (“dual-circulation”). The concept was explained later, in Xi Jinping’s commentary to the Recommendations on the Fifth Plenary Session of CPC Central Committee in October 2020. Later the term has occupied an important place in the documents of NDC session in March 2020.

The emergence and adoption in China of the concept of “two circuits” means the predominant reliance on the internal circuit compared to the external. The old strategy focused on external markets and external resources helped China to become a «global factory». But the times and China have changed: the domestic market of the country has now a huge potential, as tendencies towards protectionism and de-globalization have spread abroad.

Energy Balances of East Asian Countries Against the Background of Global Trends

Alexander V. Akimov

The four developed economies of East Asia — the People’s Republic of China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan – form a major global center for fuel and energy consumption, with very limited reserves of fossil fuels other than coal in the People’s Republic of China. The energy balances of these countries are similar in terms of a significant share of imports, including high-tech imports of liquefied natural gas, as well as a high share of coal. All of these countries use modern technologies, including nuclear power and the use of renewable energy sources, but the policies of these countries in focusing on modern technologies differ.

The State Program of the People’s Republic of China on Countering Сlimate Change

Elena I. Kranina

After the COVID-19 pandemic, the most difficult and potentially most dangerous environmental problem in the XXI century has become the climate crisis, which is expressed in an increase in the average annual temperature, the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events: droughts, floods, tornadoes, sudden thaws, frosts, melting glaciers, etc. All these phenomena cause significant damage to nature, man and the economy. Climate change is associated with an increase in the «greenhouse effect» — the total increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as a result of human economic activity, industrial, transport, agricultural emissions, deforestation and land degradation.

Despite the fact that the reasons for the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change remain unclear, and the proposed hypotheses have not been proven by anyone, the world community accuses the PRC of environmental dishonesty. Due to the current historical circumstances, China is indeed the largest producer of greenhouse gases. It accounts for about 30% of all global emissions — twice as much as the US, it pollutes the air more than all European countries combined, and over the past 20 years, CO2 emissions have grown six times faster than the rest of the world. The country’s share of global greenhouse gas emissions is significantly higher than its share of global GDP (about 19.35%), which means that it has a «strong carbon footprint» and special efforts are required to reduce it.

The article attempts to analyze a new stage in the construction of the «ecological civilization» of the People’s Republic of China — the development of a national climate program to achieve a zero carbon footprint by 2060. The program of the 14th five-year plan (2021–2025) and the main directions of development of the People’s Republic of China until 2035 contain a set of measures that should help fulfill the commitments made at the Paris Climate Conference in 2015. in October, the XIX Congress of the Communist Party of China: «From 2020 to 2035, 15 years of hard struggle… will radically improve the environment,» promised the General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, Chinese President Xi Jinping. In order to protect the environment, he demanded «stricter standards for emissions of pollutants», called for «creating a diversified mechanism for compensating for environmental damage based on market principles» — thus, the costs of restoring the environment are shifted from the shoulders of the state to environmentally disadvantaged enterprises. At the opening of the 4th session of the NPC of the 13th convocation on March 5, 2021. he said that » China is ready to launch a new process of global climate and biodiversity management and promote the building of a community of one destiny on Earth.» The author of the article showed what practical actions China is taking to become a «responsible world leader».

The Informal Ties in the Japanese Bureaucracy: the Challenge to Legalism and Impersonalism

Dmitry B. Grafov

The literal translation Japanese term amakudari is «descent from heaven» and derived from ama meaning heaven and kudari meaning decending. The term describes the practice of employing senior bureaucrats who have retired from positions in ministries to managerial positions in corporations, non-governmental associations overseen by these ministries. This government-officials-turned-managers practice is based on external and internal Jinmyaku ties. Amakudari relationships with their ministry ex-colleagues (co-Amakudari, pre-Amakudari) are mutually beneficial. It is considered among officials that through Amakudari the government is able to influence and control decision making in business. Private companies benefit through close ties to the government, using the retired bureaucrats. Amakudari and Watari practices help to acquire public contracts, delay inspections and ensure various forms of preferential treatment through Jinmyaku network. In spite of officials-turned-managers practice is allowed by Japan’s National Civil Service Law 2008 only 2 years after leaving government service, ministries continue to help the post retirement and before retirement officials in seeking jobs.

This article seeks to analyze and map Amakudari and Jinmyaku patterns from perspectives of an institutional and a social network theories. The author makes attempt to compare Jinmyaku with other informal relations, based on group loyalty, reciprocity, benefits received, known as Chinese and Arab Cultural Constructs: Guanxi and Wasta. Interpersonal connections and networks are considered from perspective of traditional and rational motives creating group loyalty. The conclusion of the study is as follows. Amakudari practice, based on individual interests secured by group interests, challenges legalism and impersonality that create rational-bureaucracy legitimacy of the government.

New China’s First Civil Code: Problems of Theory and Practice

Pavel V. Troshchinskiy

On January the 1st, 2021, the first Civil Code in the history of the People’s Republic of China took effect. The process of codification of civil legislation began in the PRC back in the 1950s. However, due to various circumstances, the Code wasn’t adopted during the 20th century. Only in virtue of the initiative of Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, the work on the content of a large codified act of civil law was successfully completed and the Chinese parliament approved the Code in May 2020. A kind of «economic constitution», which is understood as the Civil Code, is designed to regulate a wide range of civil law relations, comprehensively protect the legal rights and interests of a wide range of participants. The emergence of the Civil Code in the legal system of China was a major event in the history of the country, it was carried out as a part of a large-scale campaign to strengthen the rule of law and rule the state on the basis of the law. The content of the Civil Code of the PRC is of significant theoretical and practical interest both for the Russian legal and sinological sciences, and for all compatriots working with China and in China. The research of the Code requires a deep immersion in the Chinese political and legal reality, an understanding of the foundations of public administration in a new era, and also an awareness of the specifics of legal culture, the legal consciousness of Chinese citizens and law enforcement practice.

Legal Regulation of Tax Relations Complicated by a Foreign Element in Taiwan

Roman A. Shepenko

The proclamation of basic freedoms, the increase in military expenses, natural disasters and epidemics, and, of course, poor governance are the reasons for the lack of public revenue. To solve the problem, usually with reference to global challenges at the bilateral and multilateral levels, various initiatives are put forward, primarily against tax avoidance.

The solution of the relevant problem is not possible unilaterally, and therefore treaties are concluded or amended. Special rules against tax avoidance are on the agenda of the authorities of various states. There is a certain specificity in the regulationin relation to unrecognized states and territories with a special status. Some of these entities are even members of international organizations, but do not have an extensive network of treaties containing tax provisions.

The law of the People’s Republic of China provides relevant examples. The authorities of mainland China managed not only properly form the legal framework for regulating tax relations with Hong Kong and Macau, but also to resolve the issue with Taiwan.

In the given article, on the basis on normative and academic materials, taking into account the practice of other states and territories, the issues of legal regulation of tax relations complicated by a foreign element in Taiwan are considered. There are two levels of such regulation: national and international. It can be argue that Taiwan follows common approaches and trends in the elimination of double taxation and the prevention of tax avoidance. It is obvious that the absence of diplomatic recognition of a state is not decisive for the characterization of the composition of legal norms.

State Strategies of Russia and China in the Mental Health Protection on the Example of Juvenile Depression

Sergey Z. Savin
Nikolay E. Kosykh
Evgeniya V. Solodkaya

The article examines the social and legal problems of the mental health of the population of Russia and China using the example of depressive spectrum disorders. The urgency of the problem is caused by the wide spread of the disease, the difficulty of early diagnosis, the growing risk of suicide and is extremely important in most countries of the world. A comparative analysis of legal problems in the two countries in the field of mental health prevention, conducted at the macrosocial levels through parallel sociological and psychological studies in the Khabarovsk Territory and Heilongjiang Province of the People’s Republic of China, showed a significant difference in the state approach of neighboring countries of the Far East. In Heilongjiang Province, the adolescent depression prevention model has been implemented and is highly effective.

Strategic Сulture in Chinese Scientific Discourse

Kira E. Kozhukhova

The concept of «Chinese strategic culture» appeared in the scientific discourse of the People’s Republic of China at the beginning of the XXI century, a few years after its conceptualization by Western scientists in the mid-90s of the XX century. Chinese political scientists began to interpret the strategic culture of their country with the special «specifics» inherent in the Middle Kingdom. As a result, the content of this concept included not just following the traditions and peculiarities of the national mentality in solving issues of war and peace but understanding the Confucian principle of harmony in Chinese military strategy. Understanding these features helps to understand the Chinese strategic culture and provides an opportunity to identify the logic and meaning of China’s behavior in the international arena. The study of Chinese strategic culture involves the use of a number of methods of scientific knowledge. A retrospective analysis reveals the genesis of the concept of «Chinese strategic culture». Civilizational analysis was used to develop an understanding of the manifestation of traditional values in politics. The comparative analysis provided the identification of the features of the perception of strategic culture in the Chinese scientific discourse. The method of analogy was also used as a tool for identifying the common and special features of the concept of «Chinese strategic culture».

«Sharp Power» in the Modern Political Discourse of Western Countries and the Foreign Policy of Russia and China

Dmitry V. Kuznetsov

The article deals with the concept of «sharp power», applied to the foreign policy of the PRC and RF». In recent years, the idea that “sharp power” is an alternative version of “soft power” implemented by authoritarian states (China, Russia, Iran, etc.) has spread in the political discourse of Western countries. The use of «sharp power» is aimed at undermining democratic regimes in Western countries, primarily, in the United States. The tools of «sharp power» most often include interpersonal exchanges, cultural events, educational programs and the development of global media projects (Russia Today, Sputnik, Confucius Institutes, etc.). The possibilities of the global Internet are widely used, in particular, social networks (Facebook, Twitter, etc.). Propaganda, data falsification, manipulation and distortion of information, cyber attacks, all of them are manifestatins of the use of «sharp power». The concept of «sharp power», as well as its frequent use in modern political discourse in Western countries, are the elements of the United States course of confrontation with Russia and China. The concept of «sharp power» should be viewed as a propaganda cliché used by Western countries for Russia and China in the new «cold war» («Cold War» 2.0).

Spatial Development of the Amur River Regions: Social Aspect

Maxim V. Fomin
Vadim A. Bezverbny
Igor A. Seleznev
Elena A. Lukashenko
Nikolay Yu. Mikryukov
Timur R. Miriazov

The article deals with the actual problems of spatial development of the Russian Amur River regions — the Khabarovsk Krai, the Amur Oblast` and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast`. The results of a field sociological study conducted by the authors in these regions in September 2020 are presented and also-for comparison — the social well-being of the population of the regions of the north and south of the Far East according to the results of the survey in August-September 2019. The sample is constructed on the model which is using key characteristics of the general totality and based on the principles of quota-proportional and territorial methods. The total sample size is 659 respondents. The empirical object of the study is the adult population of the regions. The social situation of the population of the Amur River region, migration attitudes and attitudes towards labor migrants from abroad, the assessment of the economic situation and the dynamics of the development of key enterprises of the mesoregion are considered. The article considers the main causes of mass migration sentiments. The social stratification in the regions and the growing differentiation in income levels also remain a serious problem. The population of the Amur River region is acutely aware of the growing income inequality in the mesoregion and points to the lack of social justice as an important factor in motivating moving to a new place of residence. In fact, in order to retain and attract the population to the Amur River region, it is necessary to maintain a higher standard of living in these regions than in European Russia. The remoteness and more severe climatic conditions of the Far East require compensatory mechanisms in other areas as well.