A new issue of the «Far Eastern Studies» N5, 2021 has been released [e-version].
Russian Far East
Maklyukov A.V. State Strategy for the Accelerated Development of the Electric Power Industry in the Far East of the USSR (1964–1991): Historical Experience
Afonaseva A.V. Overseas Chinese Affairs Policy of the PRC from Jiang Zemin to Xi Jinping (Part 2)
Liang Zhenpeng. The Chinese Factor of the SCO Development in the Post-pandemic Period
Soboleva E.D., Krivokhizh S.V. Foreign News in the East Asian Mass Media: New Research Directions
Akimova V.V., Paramzina E.A. Pharmaceuticals in Southeast Asia: Reality and Future Prospects
Liu Xun. Current Situation, Problems and Prospects of Russia-China Economic and Trade Cooperation: the Chinese Perspective
State and Society
Kuznetsov D.V. “Chairman Mao’s Good Soldier” Lei Feng
Wang Chensheng, Jiang Hongfei. Thinking about Jointly Preventing the “Color Revolution” by China and Russia
Simbirtseva T.M., Volkov S.V. Karl Waeber’s Archive Published — Facts vs Myth-making
Pak B.B. Facts Against Insinuations (Reply to T.M. Simbirtseva and S.V. Volkov)
Vradiy S.Yu. Chinese Ports Blockade by the Nationalists Navy, Background to the 1954 Capture of the Tanker “Tuapse”
Yu Danhong. The Сhinese “Harmony Culture” and Russian “Sobornost”
Vinogrodskaya V.B. Chinese Classical Textual Studies in the 20th and 21st Centuries
Ikonnikova E.A., Dobrycheva A.A. Linguistic and Сultural Sketches in John M. Tronson’s Travel Diary
Chun Jiin. Korean Сultural Phenomenon Nunchi
Zhang Xiaoling. The Significance of the Establishment of the International Tea Day in the Context of the Development of the Global Tea Industry
State Strategy for the Accelerated Development of the Electric Power Industry in the Far East of the USSR (1964–1991): Historical Experience
Aleksey V. Maklyukov
The article examines the historical aspects of the formation and implementation of the state strategy for the accelerated development of the electric power industry in the Far East in 1964–1991. The author analyzes problems of power supply of the Far Eastern region of the country, considers programs for the development of the regional electric power industry, reveals the difficulties of their implementation, and characterizes structural changes in the industry and the results of electrification of the region. The implementation of the strategy in the Far East began when the economy of the USSR was in crisis, developing in a conservative and extensive way. It is shown that the harsh natural and climatic conditions, the vast territory of the region, the uneven nature of its development, the weak construction industry, material and technical insecurity and underfunding of the facilities under construction hampered the implementation of the strategy. As a result of the deterioration of relations with the PRC and the abandonment of joint projects for the development of hydropower in the Amur region, opportunities for the accelerated development of the non-carbon electric power industry in the Far East were missed. The author notes that the USSR government only partially met the objectives set forth. It managed to create a unified energy system in the south of the Far East, to build new power plants in all regions, and to lay power lines. But until the end of the Soviet era, the problems of regional energy supply were not resolved. The Far Eastern electric power industry remained a backward, costly and unfinished industry, and in this state it moved to the present stage.
Overseas Chinese Affairs Policy of the PRC from Jiang Zemin to Xi Jinping (Part 2)
Alina V. Afonaseva
The second part of the article analyzes the domestic policy towards overseas Chinese (huaqiao-huaren), re-emigrants and relatives of emigrants and re-emigrants (guiqiao-qiaojuan). Under Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao, and Xi Jinping (1993 — present), domestic policy towards overseas Chinese continued in three previously formed key areas: attracting investment, remittances, and donations. There are new and fundamentally important directions in domestic policy: conducting advertising and presentation events, creating specialized projects for business, and protecting the rights of huaqiao in the PRC. Domestic policy towards guiqiao-qiaojuan includes the creation of a legislative framework to protect their rights and interests in the PRC, and the development of specific projects for their adaptation and improvement of living conditions. One of these projects is the so-called overseas Chinese farms created under Mao Zedong for repatriates, in which the relatives of emigrants were also employed.
The research is based on the main legislative acts and documents related to huaqiao-huaren and guiqiao-qiaojuan.
The article concludes that the modern overseas Chinese affairs policy of the PRC demonstrates full connection with the main external and internal development projects of the country. It has developed into a full-scale system of cooperation with overseas Chinese, considering the national interests and the interests of the diaspora as much as possible. This system works to attract and use the resources of the diaspora in accordance with the requests of the PRC, and to create a comfortable business environment for the Chinese in the world.
The Chinese Factor of the SCO Development in the Post-pandemic Period
The author notes that the coronavirus infection has brought serious threats to the further development of the member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Firstly, the coronavirus infection slows down the economic growth of the SCO member states, and secondly, the effectiveness of containing the coronavirus infection depends more on authoritative and holistic methods of governments, their intention to take full responsibility for the situation and activate reserves, leadership, and effectiveness of the officials. Moreover, COVID-19 has seriously impacted the regional security environment in the SCO member states. The governments of different countries do not have sufficient experience in dealing with the sudden spread of this disease. It is noted that the new Chinese initiative to create health community, development community, security community, humanistic community will have a great positive impact on the restoration of the development of the social economy and the creation of public order in the member countries of the organization. At the end of the article, problems and solutions are considered in the course of the implementation of the creation of these four communities in the SCO space. The «SCO + N» regime offers a platform for member states with external actors to develop and strengthen cooperation in a bilateral format and helps to reduce the gap in the economic development of countries in the SCO space. Strengthening the status of the organization in terms of legitimacy and the search for common stakeholders in coordination and consultations between the Russian Federation, China, and India provide a favorable environment for the further development of the organization.
This article was written with the support of the Special Fund for Basic Research of Central Universities for Lanzhou University under the project № 21lzujbkydx003. (本文得到兰州大学中央 高校基本科研业务费专项资金 (项目编号: 21lzujbkydx003) 的资助).
Foreign News in the East Asian Mass Media: New Research Directions
Elena D. Soboleva
Svetlana V. Krivokhizh
The article discusses the prospects of the foreign news research in the media of modern East Asia. The authors present a brief literature review on political discourse in the East Asian media and suggest possible research strategies for studying the international agenda in the media of these countries. The article argues that such research approach is valuable as it allows one to better understand the way East Asian countries view foreign news and international relations, study the socio-political processes in this region from a new angle and evaluate the role of the media in politics. The article discusses several social sciences theories that can help to explain and interpret observations obtained during the analysis of publications in the media, for example, the theory of media domestication, the concepts of external legitimacy and «othering». The political regime, independence and commercialization of the media are discussed among explanatory factors. The authors pay attention to the specifics of these theories’ application to the case of East Asia, provide recommendations for data collection and research methods, and discuss various research trajectories. For example, researchers can focus on trends in the representation of an event in the media using content analysis of a large number of publications. Another possible strategy is to study a small number of articles using critical discourse analysis in order to identify discursive practices and their relationship with political processes and power. Knowledge of the languages, history, politics and culture of East Asian countries gives researchers of East Asia a significant advantage in conducting such research and could provide valuable contributions.
The publication was prepared within the framework of the Academic Fund Program in HSE University in 2021 (grant № 21–04–013).
Pharmaceuticals in Southeast Asia: Reality and Future Prospects
Varvara V. Akimova
Ekaterina A. Paramzina
The article is dedicated to the analysis of the pharmaceutical industry, one of the most actively developing sectors of the world economy, in the region of «new development» — Southeast Asia. It was found that at present in the countries located in the region under consideration, there is a gradual shift away from the purely production stages of drug manufacturing in favour of an intersectoral pharmaceutical complex. There is a functional diversification of the pharmaceutical industry with deepening corporate specialization. However, a pronounced specialization in the production of a particular type of product is characteristic only for countries with high and medium levels of development of the pharmaceutical industry — Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia. There is a gradual transformation of the territorial structure from monocentric — with a growth pole in the form of Singapore, to polycentric due to the growing contribution of Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. A distinctive feature of the pharmaceutical industry in Southeast Asia is the enclave type of development of its territorial structure at the country level. A significant part of production facilities and research laboratories is concentrated in one (capital), less often in two centres (the case of Indonesia — West and East Java and Vietnam with industrial cores in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City).
Current Situation, Problems and Prospects of Russia-China Economic and Trade Cooperation: the Chinese Perspective
In recent years, Russia-China economic and trade cooperation has enjoyed a good momentum of development. During the pandemic and complex international situation, Russia-China economic and trade cooperation is moving forward against the trend. Bilateral trade relations are becoming closer, the scale and fields of investment cooperation are expanding, energy, agricultural, scientific and technological cooperation is steadily advancing. This shows that the economic and trade cooperation between Russia and China has a solid foundation and broad space. However, there are still problems that cannot be ignored. The scale of bilateral trade is relatively small, the trade structure is not reasonable, and the depth of cooperation in the spheres mentioned above is insufficient. Russia-China economic and trade cooperation needs to develop in the direction of high quality and realize the unity of «increasing volume» and «improving quality». From the Chinese perspective, China’s economic and social development strategy in a medium or long term will have a positive impact on bilateral economic and trade cooperation with Russia. It will help deepen the scientific and technological cooperation, accelerate the development of cross-border e-commerce, elevate investment cooperation to a higher level, further unleash the potential of energy cooperation, boost the agricultural cooperation, and upgrade Russia-China economic and trade cooperation as a whole.
The research has been carried out on the basis of a scientific grant from the Heilongjiang province (projects No. WY2021023-B and No. HDYJW201903).
«Chairman Mao’s Good Soldier» Lei Feng
Dmitry V. Kuznetsov
The article examines the personality of «Chairman Mao’s good soldier» Lei Feng — a soldier of the People’s Liberation Army of China, who died tragically in 1962. On March 5, 1963, on the initiative of Mao Zedong, a political and ideological campaign was announced in China under the slogan «Learn from Lei Feng». In order to consolidate the positive image of Lei Feng in the mass consciousness of the people of the PRC, the possibilities of culture and art were widely used. The largest-scale political and ideological campaign under the slogan «Learn from Comrade Lei Feng!» acquired in the first years after the death of Lei Feng and during the «cultural revolution» (1966-1976). In 1977 Lei Feng’s study campaign unfolded with renewed vigor. In the 1980s, the mass movement gradually began to fade. The CPC leadership made significant efforts to preserve it in 1980-1981, to revive it in 1987 and after the tragic events in Tiananmen Square (1989). Since 2012, there has been an increase in this campaign. Currently, Lei Feng is the personification of altruism, volunteering and helping others, carried out on a selfless basis. In this capacity, the image of Lei Feng is used in the public discourse of modern China. The Chinese media constantly refer to stories, the heroes of which are ordinary Chinese — «modern Lei Feng’». The cult of Lei Feng, persistently promoted by the CCP for decades, confronts the recently widespread facts of corruption in various (including the highest) echelons of political power.
Thinking about Jointly Preventing the “Color Revolution” by China and Russia
The color revolution, which is a “low-cost and high-return” way to change power, has become the main mean and priority option for America to subvert dissident regimes. In recent years, with the raising strength of containing and suppressing China with Russia by the United States, America has tried its best to plan the “color revolution” not only around China and Russia, but also within the borders of the two countries. China and Russia have become the key target of America in implementing the “color revolution”, however, the situation of the two countries to prevent the “color revolution” is particularly urgent. The “color revolution” not only disrupts the balance of the international system and regional security, but also seriously affects the stability of the country’s political power and the healthy development of the economy. In view of this, it is now necessary for China and Russia to work together to prevent the “color revolution”. As the methods of the “color revolution” changed from non-violent to violent, more organized and advanced, with younger participants, China and Russia can strengthen their cooperation in this regard in different areas, such as politics, economy, culture, ideological education, and regional coordination. Both states should take advantages of their respective experiences in dealing with the “color revolution”, strengthen sharing and communicating experience with other countries in the region, and jointly build a barrier to prevent the “color revolution” and protect the security and stability in China and Russia and the surrounding areas.
Karl Waeber’s Archive Published — Facts vs Myth-making
Tatiana M. Simbirtseva
Sergei V. Volkov
The article is written on the occasion of the first publication in Germany in summer 2021 of a unique historical source — the family archive of the prominent Russian diplomat and orientalist Karl Ivanovich Waeber (1841–1910). The significance of this event for science can hardly be overestimated. The history of the establishment and development of official Russian-Korean relations at the end of the 19th century, as well as a number of important events in the history of Korea in the pre-colonial period, are inextricably linked with Waeber’s name. However, although historians have been writing about his professional activities for decades, very little personal information about him was known until now, and there were no photographs of him at all. With the release of the book by S. Bräsel, who is privileged to find this archive, researchers for the first time got access to the Waeber family documents and a rich collection of his photographs, which were completely unknown before. The article presents an overview of these materials by Bräsel’s book, considers their authenticity, provides general information about Waeber’s activities in Korea and examines some misconceptions that have developed about him in modern historiography due to the lack of reliable information and increasing interest in him in recent years. According to the authors, the objective historical evidence published by Bräsel put a barrier to the process of mythologizing Waeber’s personality that began in the 2010s and is expressed, in particular, in the appearance of his imaginary “descendants” and invented images.
Facts Against Insinuations (Reply to T.M. Simbirtseva and S.V. Volkov)
Pak Bella Borisovna
This article provides an analysis of scientific research on the life and activities of the first Russian Charge d’ Affaires and Consul General in Korea Karl I. Waeber and shows the specific contribution of scholars to the study of the professional biography of this outstanding diplomat. Despite the fact that the activity of K.I. Weber in Korea is partially reflected in the works of Boris D. Pak and Bella B. Pak on the history of Russo-Korean relations, as well as in several separate articles, the first special monographic work on this topic belongs to the author of this article. The monographic research focuses on a detailed coverage of the tasks and goals facing Waeber in Korea, the specific forms and conditions for their implementation, the impact he exerts on the course of the Russian government towards Korea and the analysis of the most complex international circumstances, where he made certain decisions.
This article contains answers to T.M. Simbirtseva and S.V. Volkov’s critical remarks regarding the information and photographic documents given in the work, concerning K.I. Waeber and the accusations against the author of the article in connection with the publication of Dr. S. Braezel’s photobook «Pictures of the life of a diplomat between Europe and East Asia: Karl von Waeber (1841–1910)» in the summer of 2021 in Germany. The author of the article drew attention to some erroneous judgments in the article by T.M. Simbirtseva and S.V. Volkov, formed due to ignorance and bias, analyzed and refuted the most unfounded accusations, clarified the position regarding new information about K.I. Waeber.
Chinese Ports Blockade by the Nationalists Navy, Background to the 1954 Capture of the Tanker “Tuapse”
Sergey Yu. Vradiy
In 1949, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army drove Chiang Kai-shek’s followers from the mainland to the island of Taiwan, but the Chinese Nationalists did not resign themselves to defeat. Enlisting the support of its American allies, the Kuomintang tried to impose a naval blockade on the People’s Republic of China and detained foreign cargo ships on their way to the communists. The Nationalists announced the closure of the ports taken over by the CCP-led military forces, which gradually turned into an economic and military blockade of the entire China coastline. As a result, foreign and Chinese merchant ships that were carrying cargo to the PRC were shelled, destroyed, or detained by Nationalist naval ships. The notorious one was the seizure of the Soviet oil tanker Tuapse in 1954.
The author, referring to the prehistory of the Tuapse detention, investigates the Nationalists’ justification of the closure policy, its goals and objectives. The paper reveals also the rules adopted by the government of the ROC Navy’s interaction with foreign vessels, and touches upon the extent of the US involvement in maritime operations, using unexplored documents, and comments of senior ROC government officials.
The Сhinese “Harmony Culture” and Russian “Sobornost”
The article analyzes the similarity between the Chinese “Harmony Culture” and the Russian “Sobornost”, which are the core of the national traditional culture and remain active and radiate vitality in the new era. The first part of the article analyzes the origins and content of the concepts of “Harmony Culture” and “Sobornost”. The Chinese “Harmony Culture” dates to the eight trigrams in ancient times, advocates harmony, “All under heaven are of one family”, “Harmonious but different”, “Golden mean”, etc. The notion of “Sobornost” goes back to the cathedral or village community, advocates unity, solidarity, tolerance, cooperation. The second part of the article analyzes the manifestation of the concepts of “Harmony Culture” and “Sobornost” in modern societies. In modern China, “Harmony Culture” is embodied in the goal of building a “Harmonious Socialist Society” and in the diplomatic concept of building a “Community of Human Destiny”. In modern Russia, the “Sobornost” is embodied in Putin’s “idea of new Russia” and various policies to revive “Russian traditional culture”. There is a high coherence and correspondence between the two concepts, which is an important ideological source to deepening mutual understanding between Russia and China, steadily developing Sino-Russian relations in the new era and preserving long-term peace on earth. The Russian and Chinese governments will be able to find common ground and overcome their differences.
Chinese Classical Textual Studies in the 20th and 21st Centuries
Veronika B. Vinogrodskaya
The article offers a brief outline of the history of «classical Chinese textual studies» (Zhongguo gudian wenxianxue), analyzes its content and structure, as well as its place and prospects in modern China. Classical Chinese textual studies emerged as a distinct modern academic discipline based on an ancient domestic tradition and under the influence of Western textual criticism of the 19th century. Since the 1920s, over the last hundred years, it has undergone several ups and downs but steadily continues to maintain continuity with a vast philological knowledge of imperial China, as well as to appropriate new approaches from Western humanities. The most developed areas of wenxianxue are the editing and publication of ancient texts, theoretical research in the foundations of textual studies, the creation and further exploration of subdisciplines, the analysis of research methods, and interdisciplinary perspectives, the study of the history of wenxianxue as well as various specialized problems. Overall, Chinese classical textual studies gravitate toward striving for comprehensiveness, interdisciplinary approaches, and practical issues. Currently, there is still a certain lack of innovation in exploring new areas, insufficient rigor and depth in theoretical research, the uneven development of individual areas of research and their somewhat regional character, nevertheless, textual studies manage to combine extensive practical work on «ordering ancient books» (guji zhengli) with a comprehensive study on the vast and immense Chinese textual culture.
Linguistic and Сultural Sketches in John M. Tronson´s Travel Diary
Elena A. Ikonnikova
Anna A. Dobrycheva
The article deals with the linguistic and cultural sketches in the book “A Voyage to Japan, Kamtchatka, Siberia, Tartary and various parts of the coast of China; in H.M.S. Barracouta” (1859) by John M. Tronson. The travel notes of the English author remain almost unknown in Russia. The only exception is the reference to this book by Peter Leopold von Schrenck in “Essay on Physical Geography of the Northern Sea of Japan” (1869). The linguistic and cultural content of the book presents to readers various descriptions of the Chinese, Manchu, Japanese, Korean languages, as well as the language of the Tungusic people (mistakenly taken for the Nivkh (in the book — Gilyak) language by John M. Tronson). At the same time, the interest is attracted by the Peoples of „Japan, Kamtchatka, Siberia, Tartary and China” perception of English as a mean of communication with the representatives of the European civilization. The author´s reference to the words from Japanese, Chinese, Korean and other languages is being perceived as a pioneering stage in creating in the middle of the XIX century European awareness for the culture of the Russian Far East Peoples (chiefly concerned with living environment). Regardless of being episodic, the linguistic and cultural descriptions in John M. Tronson´s travel notes are essential for the similar literature genres. The notes of the English author are regarded as the part of other travel works on Russian Far East, i.e. “Frigate ‘Pallada’” (1853–1857) by Ivan A. Goncharov. The Russian author provides not only personal observations but also scientific information on the emergence and evolution of the other Peoples languages. John M. Tronson introduces the words of foreign sound and origin, and familiarizes his readers with the realities that are absolutely new and unusual for European conscience. By acquainting with “new” world (through the reproduction of what we see, hear and interpret) different educational tasks that are bound to travelling and its genre varieties (travel notes, sketches, essays, adventures and others) are realized.
The Korean Cultural Phenomenon Nunchi
This article examines the phenomenon of nunchi (being conscious of others’ or observing other people’s state of mind, behavior, and situation) in Korean culture. Nunchi is different from Korean collectivism (We, affection) and Western European culture, where individualism is more important than the needs of society. In Korea nunchi is accepted as essential for forming a sense of solidarity in relations with people. Silence and observation are an important part of an individual’s life and social interactions in Korean society. Observing the changes in the circumstances and the people around them in a group reveals the concerns of the Koreans for those close to them. The Koreans hide their opinions, do not speak directly, and tell white lies because they believe it is essential to avoid conflict with others. Korean politeness when they talk about their thoughts, either indirectly or with a hidden meaning, may raise questions from the Russians. In Korean society, it is necessary to keep an eye out. It is not a coincidence that the Westerns understood nunchi as a means of surviving in Korean society. However, the meaning of nunchi is not just a means to survive, but with the help of nunchi, Koreans try to predict other people’s minds and understand their true desires in order to accurately understand and socialize with them. Nunchi is a basic Korean etiquette. It has deep historical roots and is closely related to collectivism.
The Significance of the Establishment of the International Tea Day in the Context of the Development of the Global Tea Industry
Chinese tea and tea culture have spread along the Great Silk Road and the Great Tea Road throughout the world. At the present stage, the tea culture and the tea industry are dynamically developing and affecting the development of the world economy and culture, as well as our daily life. This article provides an overview of the development of the tea industry in the modern world. The significance of the International Tea Day’s establishment in the context of the modern development of the world tea industry is analyzed. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new holiday — the International Tea Day, as well as analyze its importance and implications for the development of the global tea industry. Moreover, the author explains the significance of the International Tea Day creation from the angle of economics, ecology, social culture, politics and diplomacy. The author believes that in the future, under the influence of the International Tea Day, the world tea culture and industry will reach a new level of development, and tea cultures of various countries and nationalities will show their full power.
This article was published with the support of the China State Social Science Foundation, project No: 19FMZB015, the Foundation for the International Legal Training and Cooperation Center for the SCO (China), project No: CNSCO17039, as well as with the support of the Shanghai Political Law University Foundation for Young scientists, project No: 2021XQ№21.