Far Eastern Studies N2, 2023

A new issue of the «Far Eastern Studies» N2, 2023 has been released [e-version].



Streltsov D.V. About the New Concept of National Security of Japan

Sharipov F.F., Timofeev O.A. Aggravation of China-US Competition on the Problem of the World Order: Chinese Scientists Views Evolution


Ostrovskii A.V. The PRC Economy: Prospects of its Development in the Period of the 14-th Five Year Plan (2021–2025)

Potapov M.A. On the Growth Factors and Model of Economic Development of China

State and Society

Afonaseva A.V. On the Question of the Size and Location of the Chinese Diaspora in the World (1949 — Present)


Butko A.A. The Current State and Prospects of the Development of the Mekong Problem

Military Build-Up

Zamorin V.A. Participation of the Chinese Military-Industrial Complex in the Implementation of the State Plan “Made in China — 2025”


Starovoytova E.O. Diplomatic Agency of the Russian Empire in Mukden in 1901–1904 and Activities of the Diplomat S.A. Kolokolov

Khisamutdinov A.A., Bai Xue. Languages of “Modern” (Harbin Hotel “Modern” in the History of Russian-Chinese Cultural Relations)

Ning Yanhong, Gao Yan. The Role of the 88th Independent Infantry Brigade in the Anti-Japanese War

Petrov A.YU., Saprykina A.O. The End of Japan’s Isolation. Expeditions of M.K. Perry and E.V. Putyatin in the Context of the Struggle for Colonies in the North Pacific in the Middle of the 19th Century


Zavyalova O.I. On the Language Preferences of the Chinese Leaders

Scientific Events

Kudakaev R.F. Annual All-Russian Conference “Modern Chinese State”

Kim En Un, Polenova A.L., Semina L.I. On the 26th Conference of Russia and CIS Koreanologists “Korean Peninsula: Current Issues”

Book Reviews

Vinogradov A.V. The Outskirts of Russia on the Border with Towering Asia (Book Review: “A Decade of Disappointed Expectations: Pacific Asia and Pacific Russia between Two Global Crises”. Chief Editor V.L. Larin. Vladivostok: IP Shul’ga V.B., 2022. 456 р.)

About the New Concept of National Security of Japan

Dmitry V. Streltsov

The article analyzes new moments in Japan’s national security policy introduced by the documents which have been adopted by the Japanese cabinet in December 2022 — National Security Strategy, National Defense Program Guidelines and Medium Term Defense Program. The main attention is paid to the depiction of the external security environment, and above all to the assessment of China and Russia as the countries of greatest concern from the point of view of security policy. Noting that the documents do not use the term «threat» in China’s assessment, the author concludes that Japan takes a more cautious position than the United States, trying not to be drawn into a confrontation between superpowers. As for Russia, the greatest alarmism is expressed not in relation to its policy as such, but in relation to its potential blocking with China on an anti—Japanese basis — the main «nightmare» for Tokyo.

The article considers the issue of the «counter-offensive» missile potential provided for by the new strategy, which would allow Japan to strike at the enemy from a remote distance in the event of a direct threat to its security. The acquisition of such a potential has become particularly relevant for Japan in connection with the development of missile technologies of neighboring «hostile» countries — the DPRK and the PRC, as well as the general progress of missile weapons in the world, including the hypersonic ones. As part of the new approach, it is planned to create an integrated air and missile defense system that combines the capabilities of intercepting enemy missiles and counterattacking on strategic and military enemy targets.

An important change in the security policy will also be the acute increase in defense spending declared by the documents under review. The biggest problem lies in the unresolved issue of the financial sources of the defense budget, which must ensure the implementation of the adopted strategy.

Aggravation of China-US Competition on the Problem of the World Order: Chinese Scientists Views Evolution

Fanis F. Sharipov
Oleg A. Timofeev

The article is devoted to Chinese scholars’ views on the nature, history and dynamics of the modern international order. The authors analyze international order definitions given by various representatives of China’s international relations theory. The evolution of the Chinese approach to the international order and the system of global governance, from the 1950s’ isolationism till the modern global collective goods creation is traced here. International order justness and rational nature are considered as its basic principles and norms. The authors underline the impact of the rise of China, China’s foreign policy mercantilism on the formation of Beijing’s views on the contemporary international order. The current stage of formulating the concept of international order, which began in 2012, is characterized by such features as an interest in the creation of multilateral institutions and the nature of complex state power parameters.

Special attention is paid to the international order tectonic changes, associated with the beginning of large-scale conflict between Russia and Ukraine, Western sanctions, as well as the position of China. The authors note that systemic contradictions do not allow China and the United States to achieve their bilateral relations’ full normalization. China assumes an extremely negative attitude towards the U.S. of controlled chaos concept, one of the strongest features of which is sharp geopolitical pressure on Russia. By violating the principle of inviolability of property during the imposition of unilateral sanctions, Western countries send negative signals, to many nations, including China, which till the very recent times shared the basic principles of the liberal international order. The growing number of rogue states that are not subject to international law deepens the civilizational gap between the West and the rest of the world.

The PRC Economy: Prospects of its Development in the Period of the 14-th Five Year Plan (2021–2025)

Andrei V.Ostrovskii

The article analyses problems of China’s social and economic development in the period of the 14-th Five Year Plan (2021–2025) by the materials, which were published in October, 2022 at the XX Congress of the CPC and in March, 2023 at the First Session of the National People’s Congress (NPC) of the 14-th Convocation. This article sums up the social and economic results of 2022, when economic growth rates were much less than in the period of economic reforms at the end of the XX century and in the beginning of the XXI century because the COVID-19 epidemic and evident decrease of the world economic development. Never the less a lot of economic indices of China proved to be higher than all over the world, and now China is one of the world economic leaders. The First Session of the NPC planned quite realistic goals of social and economic development of China for 2023: GDP growth – 5 % per year, adding 12 million new jobs; inflation – less than 3 % per year; grain harvest at the level of 650 million tons per year and the state budget deficit is less than 3 %. Also in 2023, China will continue the policy of «double circulation» — the simultaneous development of the economy within countries and foreign economic relations in the course of further promoting the «One Belt, One Road» initiative. The author considers, if China fulfills its tasks by the end of the 14-th Five Year Plan, it will strengthen its economic potential and promote living standards of the Chinese population.

On the Growth Factors and Model of Economic Development of China

Maxim A. Potapov

The growth dynamics of the Chinese economy and the factors of its growth in recent years (2017–2022) are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the role of foreign trade, the movement of cross-border capital in the economic development of the PRC, and the state of its debt position. A number of conclusions are made regarding the prospects for growth and evolution of China’s economic development model.

Over the past ten years, the third sphere (services) has become a leading in the production of China’s GDP, ahead of the second (industrial) sphere. The analysis of GDP structure on expenses shows that the economic growth of the PRC is primarily supported by the internal factors of consumer and investment demand. The net export of goods and services currently occupies a secondary position among growth factors. A comparison of China’s GDP dynamics and foreign trade shows the high stability of the Chinese economy to changes in trade volumes.

It is noted that China’s priority efforts are focused on the formation of a new model of economic development: innovative in nature, based on a capacious domestic market, closely interacting with the world. Actively used by China until recently, the export-oriented development model has long exhausted itself in many respects. The new innovative development model will differ from the development model of new industrial countries that have solved similar tasks of maintaining growth. First of all, in China’s huge domestic market and the need to use to all domestic and external growth factors.

Such a development model is designed to ensure high quality growth and sustainable development. Innovation will replace export orientation and capital accumulation as a key driver of growth. This will make it possible to fully develop an intensive type of growth instead of an extensive one. The factors of domestic consumer and investment demand, as well as external export demand, will continue to play an important supporting role in ensuring China’s economic growth.

On the Question of the Size and Location of the Chinese Diaspora in the World (1949 — Present)

Alina V. Afonaseva

The article is devoted to the issues of the size of the Chinese diaspora (overseas Chinese or huaqiao-huaren — Chinese emigrants with PRC citizenship and ethnic Chinese with foreign citizenship), its location in the world and the degree of its self-organization. These issues are quite complex. There is still no generally accepted methodology for studying them. Changes in the size and geographical location of the Chinese diaspora are shown in a historical perspective, with an emphasis on 1949 (the creation of the PRC), 1978 (the beginning of the policy of reform and opening-up in the PRC) and 2000–2021 (suppositive present stage). The author analyzes international, Chinese (PRC and Taiwan), American and Russian estimates of the size of the Chinese diaspora and determines the range of the number of huaqiao-huaren at the present stage at 50–80 million people. She identifies 189 countries and regions of residence of overseas Chinese (earlier, a figure of 150–160 countries and regions appeared in national and foreign literature), and creates two maps of the geographical location of the Chinese diaspora by countries and regions of the world. One of them shows the actual number of overseas Chinese, the other shows the share of huaqiao-huaren in the population of countries and regions of the world. The paper also touches upon the topic of overseas Chinese communities. It studies the statistical data of the PRC and Taiwan regarding the size and types of activities of these communities. It also gives a brief overview of the economic situation of the Chinese diaspora in host countries. The author concludes that the Chinese diaspora has a high degree of self-organization and developed economic ties with China.

The Current State and Prospects of the Development of the Mekong Problem

Aleksandr A. Butko

The problem of water resources in international relations is one of the most discussed since the second half of the last century. Since the mid-1960s, water consumption in the world has more than doubled and continues to grow. This makes fresh water one of the most important factors influencing the international and domestic political situation.

In the Greater Mekong subregion, this problem is already one of the main ones. The main reasons for this are rapid economic and demographic growth, as well as changing climatic conditions. The situation is complicated by the geopolitical significance of the region, which makes it a place of struggle for influence from global and regional players.

The paper notes the role of the Mekong River in the economy of the countries of the subregion, because the contradictions between them are the main cause of international processes related to the river. The author also noted the influence on the situation from the leading world powers and the possibility of smoothing the problem from Russia.

Participation of the Chinese Military-Industrial Complex in the Implementation of the State Plan «Made in China — 2025»

Vladimir A. Zamorin

The article examines the content and driving forces of the «Made in China — 2025» Plan adopted by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China in 2015, also examines the key objectives of the Plan and the main factors influencing its implementation, reveals the spheres and stages of development of the technological base of Chinese industry. The current state of participation of Chinese military-industrial corporations in the «Made in China — 2025» Plan is outlined, examples of specific achievements of Chinese industrial and technological leaders in competition with developed countries in international markets are given. The article provides evidence that the civil-military integration conducted under the leadership of Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2010–2016 led to the acceleration of technological development of both the civil and defense industries of the PRC, and became an important impetus for the development of industrial production in China. The features of the the Plan in ten main areas are studied, such as robotics, aerospace and shipbuilding, information technology, rail transport, industries related to energy conservation, biotechnology, medicine, etc. We also offer an analytical study of the reasons for the results achieved by Chinese corporations in the modern period, as well as opportunities for further growth. In addition, the article discloses the issues of competition between Chinese manufacturers and American companies, the implementation of sanctions by Americans against Chinese corporations, as well as big differences in approaches to cooperation with China in Russia and the United States. The article estimates the prospects for China’s global industrial and technological leadership and concludes that Chinese industrialists will highly likely fulfill the tasks of the «Made in China — 2025» Plan.

Diplomatic Agency of the Russian Empire in Mukden in 1901–1904 and Activities of the Diplomat S.A. Kolokolov

Elena O. Starovoytova

At the end of the nineteenth century, Tsarist Russia’s foreign policy in the Far East, particularly in China, became considerably more active. One of the main regions of China within the sphere of interest of the Russian Empire was the so-called «Three Eastern Provinces» (Manchuria), where the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) was laid and the Kwantung Province of the Russian Empire was established. In 1900, the Russian armed forces, led by Admiral E.I. Alexeyev, were forced to temporarily occupy the entire territory of Manchuria in order to suppress an uprising organized by followers of the anti-foreign Yihetuan movement, also known as the Boxer Rebellion. This included the then capital of one of the Three Eastern Provinces, Fengtian Province, the city of Mukden. The importance of Mukden as an administrative and business center and one of the largest railway stations on the CER line made the presence of an official representative of the Tsarist authorities in the city necessary. As the Boxer Rebellion was suppressed, a growing number of diverse firms and trading enterprises began to appear in the region, and foreign powers sought to expand their presence here. In 1901, Sergey Aleksandrovich Kolokolov (1868–1921), then secretary of the Russian consulate in Kashgar and graduate of the Faculty of Oriental Languages at St. Petersburg University, was appointed as diplomatic agent of the Russian Empire in Mukden. He served at this post in Mukden until the beginning of hostilities between Russia and Japan in 1904. S.A. Kolokolov was one of those diplomatic personnel in China at the turn of the 19th — 20th centuries who, thanks to their personal professionalism and loyalty to their work, ensured the safety of Russian interests in the region. This article gives the first detailed look at key aspects of the Russian diplomatic agency in Mukden.

Languages of “Modern” (Harbin Hotel “Modern” in the History of Russian-Chinese Cultural Relations)

Amir А. Khisamutdinov
Bai Xue

The construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway and the foundation of Harbin determined the importance of this city in Russian-Chinese relations, which increased even more during the Civil War in Russia and after it. Various aspects of these relations can be analyzed using the example of the Harbin Hotel Modern. Its owners were the first to realize the idea of creating an entertainment and hotel complex, where the hotel and restaurant service was organically combined with the possibilities of cultural leisure and introducing the population to art. In the article «Modern» is presented as an example for studying the cultural and leisure aspects of the life of Harbin residents in the first half of the 20th century. Built on the initiative of Russian entrepreneurs, «Modern» has become a symbol of intercultural communication in a multinational city. Readiness for it, he broadcast the language of architecture, cooking, theater and cinema. The authors introduce the concept of the architectural language of the building itself, which is of great artistic value, give a brief description of the culinary language of «Modern», in which the traditions of Chinese cuisine were organically combined with European technologies, analyze the repertoire. European (Russian) and Chinese cultures met on the stage of «Modern», both amateur performers and outstanding artists performed, and important political negotiations took place. Two main periods of activity of «Modern» are considered: the first, 1906–1945, is more connected with Russian history, the second, from 1945 to the present day, represents the Chinese reality, but the Russianness characteristic of the past persists to this day. «Modern» and today plays an important role in the business and cultural life of China. The article is based on materials from Russian, Chinese and American archives and libraries, as well as on the results of the authors’ field research.

The Role of the 88th Independent Infantry Brigade in the Anti-Japanese War

Ning Yanhong
Gao Yan

The 88th Independent Infantry Brigade in the Far East is the only unit in the history of the Communist Party of China and the history of the Chinese Communist Army that was reorganized into the Soviet Army. In the operation of the Soviet Army dispatching troops to the Northeast of China, the teaching brigade of Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army entered the Northeast as an advance force to perform some special tasks such as guidance, translation, reconnaissance, military representatives of the Soviet garrison and so on. In addition, in accordance with the instructions of the CPC Central Committee, the teaching brigade of Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army competed with the Kuomintang regime for the actual control of the Northeast under extremely perilous conditions, and quickly completed the «Three Constructions» (Party Construction, Army Construction, and Political Construction), which made an exceedingly special contribution to the victory of the Anti-Japanese War and the liberation of the Northeast by the CPC.

The End of Japan’s Isolation. Expeditions of M.K. Perry and E.V. Putyatin in the Context of the Struggle for Colonies in the North Pacific in the Middle of the 19th Century

Aleksandr YU. Petrov
Anastasiya O. Saprykina

In the 17th century, Japan proclaimed sakoku, a policy of controlled and severely limited external contacts. It lasted a little more than two centuries and became the reaction of the Japanese shogunate to a long bloody era of unrest, which ended only with the coming to power of the shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu, who united the country. The completion of sakoku is associated with expeditions to Japan by M. Perry and E.V. Putyatin in 1853–1854. This work shows the peculiarities of the international situation that has developed in relation to Japan. The main milestones of navigation are noted. Attention is paid to the role of the Russian-American company in Putyatin’s expedition. The article examines the process of conducting long and complex multi-stage negotiations between the United States and Japan and Russia and Japan, which resulted in the conclusion of the Kanagawa and Shimoda treaties, respectively. The article provides evidence of contemporaries of the signing of treaties that can show common and distinctive features, the texts of treaties in Russian, English and Japanese are studied. It is noted that despite the similar situation and repetitive articles, there are significant differences in the texts of the treaties. The treaties became a model for similar agreements between Japan and other countries. The article is written on the basis of an interdisciplinary approach. Particular attention was paid to working with archival sources, including documents from the Russian State Archives of the Navy (RGA VMF), the State Archives of the Irkutsk Region (GAIO), the Archives of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire (AVPRI), the Department of Manuscripts of the Russian National Library (OR RNL) and the electronic archive of the National Diet Library of Japan.

On the Language Preferences of the Chinese Leaders

Olga I. Zavyalova

For centuries. attention to language problems in China has been paid at the highest level. In his speech at the 20th CPC Congress, Xi Jinping mentioned the promotion of the “all-national language and script”, i.e. Standard Mandarin and Chinese characters, as an important part of the language policy. Propaganda of traditional culture and preservation of ancient written texts is another important task in modern China. It is not by chance that soon after the 20th Congress, Xi Jinping visited Yinxu, a museum-park on the site of the second capital of the Shang-Yin dynasty, where the oldest jiaguwen character inscriptions had been discovered at the end of the 19th century. In the epoch of the revival of philological traditions, Xi Jinping’s signature in his own calligraphic version with the traditional character 習 is widely used in Chinese propaganda. Soon after the 20th Congress, the importance of the popularization of the Chinese language and culture outside the country was discussed in Xi Jinping’s letter sent to a group of students from Saudi Arabia. As for the romanization system Hanyu Pinyin, introduced in the PRC in 1958, in the official documents it is positioned as an auxiliary device used in the primary education in China, when writing Chinese words in the texts in foreign languages and in the process of teaching Chinese to foreigners or not mentioned at all. The status of the Hanyu Pinyin system in modern China is incomparable with the status of the ancient Chinese characters.