A new issue of the «Far Eastern Studies» N4, 2022 has been released [e-version].
Vinogradov A.V., Troshchinskiy P.V. The Final Session of the 13th NPC and Results of China’s State Building during the Last 10 Years
Boni L.D. Basic Economic System of Socialism and Market in China
Kashin V.B., Yankova A.D. Cross-border Cooperation between Russia and China: Deep Obstacles to Development
Gordienko D.V. Trade and Economic Cooperation of China with the Countries of the World and Russia in the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021–2025)
Makeeva S.B. Regional Development of Liaoning Province and Partnership with Russia (1990s to present)
Shabalin V.I. From Anniversary to Anniversary (Letter to the Editor)
Gorbachev B.N. Security Features at the 2008 and 2022 Beijing Olympics
Kurmyzov A.A. To the Question of the Ideological Roots of Park Chung Hee’s Socio-political Views (1961–1979)
Sun Yizhi. The Soviet Union and the May Thirtieth Movement in Shanghai
Maliavin V.V. The Configurations of Force (shi) in Chinese Cultural Tradition (Focusing on Martial Arts)
Zavyalova O.I. Language Policy in China: Recent Field Investigations
Galimzyanova A.K., Potapov Yu.B. The Role and Place of Culture in Sino-Iranian Relations
Blazhkina A.Y., Korobova A.N. International Scientific Conference “China and East Asia: Philosophy, Literature, Culture”
Anniversary of Viktor Lavrentievich Larin
Anniversary of Dmitry Anatolievich Smirnov
Anniversary of Andrei Lvovich Fedorin
The Final Session of the 13th NPC and Results of China’s State Building during the Last 10 Years
Andrey V. Vinogradov
Pavel V. Troshchinskiy
The article examines the issues of state-legal and socio-economic development of the People’s Republic of China in 2021, and also analyzes some trends in state-building in the PRC over the past 10 years. Based on the reports presented at the fifth and final session of the National People’s Congress of the 13th Convocation (March 2022), the main indicators of the work in 2021 of the State Council, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Prosecutor’s Office are given. The adopted laws indicate the strengthening of the role of the state in public and economic life, as well as the attention of the Chinese legislator to the legal provision of sovereignty and protection of national interests in the international arena in the face of sanctions and increased confrontation with the West.
Basic Economic System of Socialism and Market in China
Lyudmila D. Boni
The Chinese science’s recognition of the possibility of a market under socialism in China was a major breakthrough in the theory of Marxism. The combination of socialism and the market marked the beginning of formation of a socialist market economic system and development of mixed economy with the public property as basic. The principle of “public property is the basis，joint development of the economy of many forms of ownership” was officially called the specifics of Chinese socialism at the initial state of its development and one of its most important advantages, that made it possible to ensure high economic growth rates over the past 40 year and to transfer China into the second world economic power. But this specificity and the advantages of socialism with Chinese specifics can be manifested and realized on the institutional level only through a certain coordinate system, known as the fundamental system for state governance, namely through one of its system responsible for governing the Chinese economy, known as the basic economic system of socialism.
In 2019 according to the decision of the 4th plenum of the CPC Central Committee of the 19th convocation, the status of the socialist market economy system was raised: it was announced as an integral part of the basic economic system of socialism, which is responsible for guidance and development of China’s economy at the institutional level. The role and significance of the market system of China has increased sufficiently: the market is going to become the decisive driver for socialist modernization of the Chinese economy.
Cross-border Cooperation between Russia and China: Deep Obstacles to Development
Vasily B. Kashin
Alexandra D. Yankova
Cross-border cooperation between Russia and China is not only an important part of bilateral cooperation, but also an incentive for the accelerated development of border territories. The study of its results over the past 30 years let us to track institutional changes in both countries, overall dynamics of their foreign trade and investment activity. The gradual fading of interest in Russian Chinese cross-border cooperation is its current state main feature, that contradicts the growing number of state programs, framework agreements and with serious political support. China is increasingly restrained in assessing the transit benefits and prospects of industrial cooperation at the local level due to the small capacity of the Russian Far East market and their infrastructural underdevelopment. Both countries demonstrate an increased level of mutual distrust, bilateral projects become increasingly inconsistent, their implementation is delayed, its results contradict the expectations placed on them. To understand the reasons for this imbalance, this article consistently analyzes the main dimensions and indicators of Russian Chinese cross-border cooperation, the features of the currently existing regulatory framework and institutional framework, as well as the results of the implementation of several government programs and major bilateral projects. On the example of successful and unsuccessful cases, an attempt is made to identify obstacles to the development of interregional cooperation at different levels, including such deep problems as resistance of local elites and underestimation of the real foreign economic features and capabilities of the regions, and compare them with the problems identified by Chinese experts.
Trade and Economic Cooperation of China with the Countries of the World and Russia in the 14th Five-year Plan (2021–2025)
Dmitry V. Gordienko
The article analyzes the trends in trade and economic cooperation of the People’s Republic of China in the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021–2025). China is the world leader in foreign trade. In 2021, China’s trade volume in dollar terms increased by 30 % to reach $6.05 trillion, including exports of $3.36 trillion and imports of $2.69 trillion. According to the General Administration of Customs (GAC) of China, trade in yuan increased by 21.4 % year-on-year to 39.1 trillion yuan in 2021, while exports grew by 21.2 % to 21.73 trillion yuan, and imports — by 21.5 % — to 17.37 trillion yuan.
At the same time, according to the GAC of the PRC, in 2021 the Russian-Chinese trade turnover increased by 35.8 % to 146.89 billion dollars compared to 2020. The sanctions struggle with the West makes it possible to intensify the process of Russia’s Turn to the East and deepen trade and economic ties with China. The results of the analysis of China’s trade and economic cooperation with the countries of the world and Russia suggest that increasing the volume of foreign trade is a necessary condition for China’s socio-economic development. The priority of ensuring the growth of China’s foreign trade with the countries of the world and Russia prevails in the country’s foreign policy, giving this policy pragmatism and flexibility in the face of the sanctions fight against the United States and the support of strategic partners.
Regional Development of Liaoning Province and Partnership with Russia (1990s to present)
Svetlana B. Makeeva
The implementation of regional transformation plans in Liaoning province aims to create a digital intelligent manufacturing center, a comprehensive revitalization area in Northeast China, an international shipping center in Northeast Asia, and a maritime economic development cooperation zone. Particular attention is paid to the system of interregional interaction with Russian regions. The modern development of Liaoning province in cooperation with the regions of the world is built on the basis of the implementation of the global project of the New Silk Road. The geographical advantages of the province, developed infrastructure, many ports (Jinzhou, Dandong, Dalian, Yingkou) and a developed network of railways — all this creates serious advantages for Liaoning province over other regions of China. The Chinese side was interested in bringing the dialogue with Russia’s sister regions from the humanitarian cooperation towards a system of multi-vector partnership interaction. Novosibirsk and Irkutsk regions were assigned to Liaoning province as «sister partners», their cooperation started in the early 1990s and developed in various directions. The experience accumulated over the past decades of inter-regional «sister-city» partnership cooperation between the province of Liaoning and the Irkutsk and Novosibirsk regions can serve as a basis for further cooperation between Liaoning and the Russian regions. Promising areas for inter-regional cooperation between Liaoning Province and Russia are activities to expand foreign direct investment in energy-producing regions such as Siberia; reform and improvement of free trade zones in Liaoning province, focused on cooperation with Russia; regular communication with representatives of the administration of the Russian regions on the One Belt, One Road information platforms; strengthening the technical and cultural exchange between the enterprises of Liaoning Province and the enterprises of the Russian regions.
From Anniversary to Anniversary (Letter to the Editor)
Vadim I. Shabalin
Security Features at the 2008 and 2022 Beijing Olympics
Boris N. Gorbachev
The article is devoted to a comparative analysis of the security of the XXIX Summer Olympic Games in 2008 and the XXIV Winter Olympic Games in 2022 held in China. At the 2008 Games the main threat came from international and domestic terrorism. Therefore, to protect the Olympics, significant forces of the army and police were involved. Many different weapons, military and special equipment were involved, including means for detecting radioactive, chemical, explosive and other dangerous substances. At the same time, the role of the military and other security forces in protecting the Olympics was widely reported in the Chinese media in order to warn and frighten potential terrorists and other hostile forces. The main threat to the 2022 Games was the COVID-19 pandemic, which brought anti-epidemiological work to the fore. Under these conditions the organization of the security of the Olympic Games required different, new approaches, although the experience of the 2020 Olympics held in 2021 in Tokyo was used. The following general principles of pandemic prevention were used: simplified competition management, vaccination, closed-loop management, efficient disposal, integration of prevention and control, unified planning and comprehensive accounting. The complex and diverse process of ensuring the security of the Olympics in China in 2008 and 2022 had much in common (the creation of unified coordinating security agencies, the use of foreign experience, cooperation with foreign intelligence services, the use of special technical means). Security has become a fundamental prerequisite and an important guarantee for the success of the Olympics in China in both 2008 and 2022.
To the Question of the Ideological Roots of Park Chung Hee’s Socio-political Views (1961–1979)
Aleksandr A. Kurmyzov
This article analyzes the sources of South Korean President Park Chung Hee’s ideas of 1960–1970s. Park Chung Hee guided South Korea’s modernization and tried to create a state ideology that justified his political course. The evolution of this ideology was determined not only by the situation on the Korean Peninsula but also by Park’s personal views. His political views had a great influence on important political decisions in the country. The article reveals the basic roots of Park Chung Hee’s views. We analyzed the influence of Confucianism, ideas and experience of Meiji Japan and policy of Japanese militarism, North Korean Juche ideology. Park’s worldview was not monolithic, but composed of different ideas and influences. His ideas about state and society were influenced by Confucian concepts. Park being a Japanese trained officer was deeply influenced by Japanese colonial and military legacies. He borrowed many slogans and aspects of economic policy from Japan. Comparing himself with Meiji Japan’s modernizers Park Chung Hee was a Korean nationalist. He intended to build a militarily and economically developed state led by a strong leader. Park remolded his soft authoritarian regime into a unlimited dictatorship (Yushin) in 1972. His ideal of state had a lot of similarities with regime of Kim II Sung in North Korea.
The Soviet Union and the May Thirtieth Movement in Shanghai
This article focuses specifically on the Soviet factor in The May Thirtieth Movement in Shanghai, including the degree of central and local Soviet authorities’ involvement in the preparation and course of the Movement and financial assistance to Chinese strikers. It also examines Soviet intelligence activities in Shanghai during this period. Until May 30 the central organs of the USSR and the RCP(b) were not the initiators of the Movement. The largest workers’ movement in Shanghai occurred spontaneously and was not under the control of the Comintern or the Politburo. However, we cannot completely deny the existence of attempts to organize and control the Movement by the Soviet Consulate as early as the first days of the strikes and it has been documented that the practical actions of Soviet agents began even before the Politburo began to pay attention to the Shanghai events. The All-Union Central Trade Union Council represented the «legal» support for the strikers by the Soviet authorities. The arrival of a delegation of Soviet trade unions in Shanghai was open and contained no elements of secret diplomacy. In the field of «secret politics», G.N. Voitinsky was sent to Shanghai to lead the Movement through the CCP. During the May Thirtieth Movement, Soviet intelligence had to work in intensified mode. However, in the Shanghai municipal police files we can only find references to the activities of Soviet spies at the beginning of the Movement. The reason for this is that all police attention in July and August was concentrated on the so-called «Dosser case», which was essentially of a small scale, but was hyped up by the Shanghai press and the Municipal Council of International Settlement. Nevertheless, one should not exaggerate the influence of the Soviets on the May Thirtieth Movement. The Soviets could only control, through the CCP and the General Trade Union, the workers’ and partly the students’ part of the strikes. The leading role in the May Thirtieth Movement was still held by the Shanghai merchants, not by the Politburo and the Comintern.
The Configurations of Force (shi) in Chinese Cultural Tradition (focusing on martial arts)
Vladimir V. Maliavin
This article, based primary on previously unexplored texts of the XVI-XVIIIth centuries, deals with one of the most important and original concepts of Chinese culture and martial arts in particular: the notion of the “configuration of force” shi (势). This term has no close synonyms in European languages and is translated quite differently in Western literature: “configurational dynamics”, “potential of the situation”, “strategic advantage”, “propensity of things”, etc. The author points out that shi had both an objective and subjective, spiritual and material dimensions and served the main goal of human activity in Chinese tradition: “completing the work of Heaven” and achieving “harmonious unity of Heaven and man”. The force generated in its normative configurations was related to the transformations of the organism’ s psychosomatic substance called qi. Accordingly, the practice of “nourishing” (养) or “sublimating” (炼) this life energy was the necessary condition of acquiring force in its various configurations. This force is usually defined as “internal” or “spiritual”. The appropriation of the changes’ efficiency required the strengthening of spiritualized sensitivity, the capacity to grasp the smallest impulses of transformations and, consequently, to anticipate the course of events. In fact, this kind of efficient knowledge is related to the existential meaning of the living body as the act of self-concealment, the persistent absence. The impossibility to objectify the configurations of force resulted in their dissolution into subjective will and external forms. In modern China the normative routines of shi have actually become part of physical culture and choreography. Their legacy has been preserved within small and closed schools of traditional type.
Language Policy in China: Recent Field Investigations
Olga I. Zavyalova
The recent large-scale field investigations show that the ethnic and language situation in China is much more complex than it seemed before the end of the 1970s, and China remains one of the most linguistically and culturally diverse countries in the world. However, many languages of various ethnic groups and many Chinese dialects, both known in the past or recently discovered, are spoken by no more than a few members of the older generation. Among the most important tasks, set for the linguistic community by the Chinese authorities, is the investigation and preservation on electronic carriers of numerous languages of the peoples of China, any Chinese dialects and the samples of local cultures. The data collected in 2015–2019 within a large-scale “Program for the preservation of Chinese language resources” is represented in numerous publications devoted in particular to the endangered languages of China and on a unique online platform accessible for the linguists and partially for any Internet users. The next stage of the field studies of the language and local cultural heritage of China was officially initiated in 2020.
The Role and Place of Culture in Sino-Iranian Relations
Albina K. Galimzyanova
Yury B. Potapov
In the modern era of globalization, culture has become an important indicator of the total power of the state, and also began to act as a decisive force in the relationship between actors and the system of international relations. China and Iran are the birthplace of ancient oriental civilizations, have long-term cultural exchanges, which are the basis and conditions for cultural interaction between the two countries. 2021 has become an important milestone in Sino-Iranian relations. The countries celebrated the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations and signed an agreement on comprehensive strategic cooperation for 25 years. Cultural cooperation between China and Iran goes back centuries during the Han Dynasty, when the Chinese traveler Zhang Qian opened the Great Silk Road, which became an important channel of communication and friendship between the peoples of China and Iran. At present, “One Belt, One Road” is not only a way of economic and trade cooperation, but also a means of cultural exchange. Today, Sino-Iranian cultural relations are a dynamic process. There are several mechanisms for cultural cooperation such as the “China-Iran Friendship Association Annual Meeting” and the “China-Iran Cultural Dialogue”. The countries closely cooperate through women’s and other specialized creative organizations, interact in the field of cinema, youth exchanges, and are also engaged in the popularization and teaching of the Persian language in China and the Chinese language in Iran.