Far Eastern Studies N1, 2023

A new issue of the «Far Eastern Studies» N1, 2023 has been released [e-version].



Kazantsev A.E. The Taiwan Question and PRC Politics of Memory towards Japan

Pupysheva M.V., Navdaeva M.E. Chinese Policy in Latin America: Challenges for Spain

Tarantul R.V. The Mongolian National Factor in the PRC and Sino-Mongolian Relations


Stepanov N.S. Expediency of Сreating a Supranational Currency within the Framework of the SCO and BRICS International Organizations under the Influence of Trade and Sanctions Restrictions

Lemutov V.A. From “World Factory” to Technological Superpower: is China Ready for Global Leadership in Innovation?

Titov S.A. Development of Eco-industrial Parks in China

Zueva A.G. Modern Challenges of Economic Cooperation between the Republic of Korea and the United States

Theory and Methodology

Kondrashova L.I. Epoch-Making Triad of Chinese Revolutions


Mostovaia A.S. Origins and Development of Japanese Automotive Industry in 1920–1945 (the Case of Toyota Motor Company)

Sharonova V.G. The Role of the Russian Imperial Consulate in Nyuzhuang (Yingkou) in Expanding Trade and Economic Relations between Russia and China from 1906 to 1909


Vinogrodskaya V.B. 15 Years of Implementation of the Chinese Ancient Books Preservation Plan (2007–2022)

Scientific Events

Zueva A.G., Kim En Un, Polenova A.L., Samsonova V.G. The 33rd IFES-APRC Conference of the Institute of China and Contemporary Asia of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Asia-Pacific Research Center of Hanyang University

Mamakhatov T.M., Mokretskii A.Ch., Polenova A.L. About the 10th Anniversary International Conference of Young Orientalists in ICCA RAS

Book Reviews

Vinogradov A.V. The History of Mankind Inside and Out (Book Review: Khoros V.G. Civilizations in the Modern World. Books 1 and 2. M.: Lenand, 2022. Indian, African, Islamic and Chinese Civilizations. Latin American Civilizational Community. 1st Book. 304 p.; European Civilization. Russian Civilization. 2nd Book. 240 p.).

Kuzminkov V.V. Book Review: 佐藤優『プーチンの野望』. [Sato Masaru. Putin`s ambitions]. 東京: 潮出版社, 2022. 272 p.

Portyakov V.Ya. Book Review: A.V. Afonasieva. Diaspora Engagement Policy of the PRC: Socio-economic Direction. Moscow: IDV RAN, 2022. 336 p.

Scholar Jubilee

Anniversary of Lyudmila Ivanovna Kondrashova

Anniversary of Alexander Zakharovich Zhebin

Anniversary of Vladimir Fedorovich Borodich

Ad Memoriam

In Memory of Liubov Vladimirovna Novoselova

The Taiwan Question and PRC Politics of Memory towards Japan

Artem E. Kazantsev

This paper discusses the place of Taiwan in PRC’s foreign policy and politics of memory from the perspective of PRC’s raising pressure on Japan and the necessity to solve the Taiwan problem. The Taiwan issue is an important topic for the PRC. Taiwan is still perceived by the Chinese as a reminder of the unfinished civil war and a divided China.

The issue of reunification became especially acute during the reign of Xi Jinping, when the need to return Taiwan «to its homeland» became one of the main tasks of the «Great Revival of the Chinese Nation». However, the leadership of Taiwan does not want to lose its de facto independence from the mainland. Besides, the unification of the island with China is not welcomed by other major powers in the region, in particular Japan. Moreover, deep economic, political and cultural interaction has been established between Taiwan and Japan. From the point of view of mainland China, Taiwan cannot have either economic or political independence. To achieve reunification with the island, the PRC resorts to memory politics.

The paper analyzes the origins of the Taiwan issue, as well as the positions of the PRC, Japan and Taiwan. The features of the politics of memory of the PRC, which determine the use of memory politics as a foreign policy instrument in relation to Japan, are exposed and analyzed.

It is concluded that PRC politics of memory towards Japan is characterized by frequent appeals to the events of the Sino-Japanese war (1931–1945) and the period of Japanese occupation of Taiwan. The PRC claims its right to return the island «to its homeland» as a result of victory in the war and points out that Japan has no moral right to intervene in this issue.

Chinese Policy in Latin America: Lessons and Risks for Spain

Maria V. Pupysheva

Maria E. Navdaeva

In the past two decades, Latin American countries and China have strengthened cooperation in such areas as politics, economy, finance, culture, and military sphere. In these relations each party pursues its own goals: China, for example, is looking for access to new sources of raw materials and markets, as well as support on some sensitive issues on the international agenda, such as the problem of human rights or the status of Taiwan. Latin America seeks new sources of finance, and technology, as well as the diversification of foreign policy ties. Sino-Latin American relations are most active in the sphere of economy, investment and lending, that increases the interdependence between China and the countries of the region and even the dependence on Chinese funding. At the same time, despite gradual growth, social and cultural contacts between parties remain limited, and that constrains the development of mutual understanding between them. The strengthening of Beijing’s position in Latin America logically arouses Spain’s fears, as the region has always been a historical space for its foreign policy; Spain’s position and attractiveness there are gradually declining. However, since cooperation with China contributes to the development of Latin American countries, it can play a positive role for Spain and creates an opportunity for building ties between Spanish and Chinese institutions. Thus, the article is devoted to the problem of the influence of the development of Sino-Latin American relations on the role of Spain as a traditional foreign policy partner of the region. The authors conclude that in the context of the growth of partnership between Latin America and China, Spain will have to look for ways to cooperate with Chinese entities, trying to maintain its role in the region and derive benefits from such cooperation.

The Mongolian National Factor in the PRC and Sino-Mongolian Relations

Roman V. Tarantul

The article examines the influence of the Mongolian national factor on Sino-Mongolian relations, as well as its repercussion in PRC domestic policy, primarily in the Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia. Particular attention is paid to ethno-cultural reasons and conditions that hinder the stable development of bilateral relations between China and Mongolia: the existence of world pan-Mongolian and nationalist movements, the dispute over the status of the XIV Dalai Lama, China’s actions to appropriate the symbols of traditional Mongolian culture and the commercialization of Genghis Khan’s personality.

In the study of Beijing’s national policy in Inner Mongolia, the historical prerequisites that served to complicate the Mongolian issue in the modern PRC were identified, and the features of the policy of forming the «consciousness of the community of the Chinese nation» in relation to the IMAR were discovered. Special attention is paid to Beijing’s attempts to acculturate the Mongols living in the PRC by translating educational programs from Mongolian into Chinese, regulating the rituals of Buddhism, and appropriating common Mongolian intangible cultural heritage sites to China.

Separately, the growing economic interaction between China and Mongolia, which results in China’s leading position in the foreign trade turnover of Mongolia and in foreign investment in the country’s enterprises, is considered. The Beijing’s sanctions pressure on Ulaanbaatar is analyzed in connection with disagreements on national and religious grounds, as a result of which the Mongolian leadership made concessions to the PRC.

The study concludes that, from a rational viewpoint, it is beneficial for China and Mongolia to maintain a stable and predictable bilateral political and economic interaction. At the same time, the Mongolian national factor forces both states to treat each other with a certain degree of apprehension. Beijing sees Mongolia as a country bearing the threat of pan-Mongolian separatism, and Ulaanbaatar, based on the historically established Sinophobic mentality of the Mongols, is afraid of falling into total economic and cultural dependence on the PRC.

The Expediency of Creating a Supranational Currency within the Framework of the SCO and BRICS International Organizations under the Influence of Trade and Sanctions Restrictions

Nikita S. Stepanov

The research consists in substantiating the significance and potential of the grouping of the SCO and BRICS countries; determining the conditions for the possibility of creating a supranational currency within the framework of the SCO and BRICS international organizations under the influence of trade and sanctions restrictions; formulating the advantages and disadvantages of several areas of transformation of the global financial system. The BRICS countries account for more than 40% of the world’s population and almost 30% of global GDP, and they have high potential in all spheres of economic activity. At the same time, the dominance of the dollar allows the American economy to influence the world with its monetary policy, strengthens the US position in the global economy.

Turbulence in the international arena is increasingly pushing the countries of the SCO and BRICS international organizations to take steps to strengthen their positions in the world, including the possible admission of new members and an increase in trading volumes of their national currencies. It is shown that the increasing turbulence, the questions arising in many countries regarding the freezing of foreign exchange reserves of the state and the procedure for the confiscation of the property of Russian oligarchs, the measures of central banks of different countries to diversify their reserves into currencies such as the yuan indicate that the dominance of the dollar may end not the main competitors of the dollar, but a large group of alternative currencies.

It is proved that since the dollar and the euro rely on a huge amount of printed money and do not have a solid foundation behind them, the BRICS currency can be based on real goods traded on exchanges: oil, precious metals, wheat, rice, coffee and much more. Since the BRICS countries are major suppliers of the stock market, therefore, the diverse composition of the BRICS countries’ exports gives them the opportunity to complement each other, which confirms the feasibility of creating a supranational currency within the framework of the SCO and BRICS international organizations.

From “World Factory” to Technological Superpower: is China Ready for Global Leadership in Innovation?

Vasily A. Lemutov

In recent years, China has been often touted as a «technological superpower» rather than the «world factory». The new concept implies the country’s leadership in the field of new technologies and their significant role in its economy. At first glance, China’s achievements in science and technology and growing exports of high-tech goods confirm this status.

China’s innovation potential has grown significantly in recent years — the country gets regularly ranked top 20–30 in both Chinese and international innovation rankings. Moreover, the analysis of indicators related to China’s independence in innovations shows an even more confident leadership of the country — up to the top 5 countries of the world.

At the same time, a quantitative assessment of factor contributions to economic growth shows that the contribution of new technology to GDP growth from 2000 to 2019 was 8–10%, while for the most part, growth was driven by traditional industries. Nevertheless, China’s growth can no longer be called extensive in recent years, and the state’s efforts to switch to high-tech drivers through large-scale programs, such as the construction of «new infrastructure,» only bring China closer to the status of a «technological superpower». Although China cannot yet be called technologically independent, trends in recent years suggest that China may well reach the status of a world technological leader even before its GDP, measured in current exchange rates, exceeds that of the United States.

Development of Eco-industrial Parks in China

Sergei A. Titov

Over the past 20 years, China has made outstanding progress in the development of eco-industrial parks. Their number exceeds 110 parks, which is more than in any other country. They play an important role in improving the environmental performance of industrial clusters and transport hubs in many areas of the PRC. Their environmental performance indicators are increasing year by year. Their contribution to the economic and environmental performance of the territories is the subject of many studies. However, most papers study individual types of effects or the effectiveness of individual eco-industrial parks. This article systematically explores China’s experience in the development of eco-industrial parks in terms of the dynamics of their total number, distribution across all territories of the stratum and all groups of effects. The study is structured as a comprehensive literature review using qualitative and quantitative tools to synthesize existing findings and official documents. As part of the study of temporal dynamics, the average duration of the creation of an eco-industrial park and its tendency to increase to 10 in 2022 were identified. In 2015–2022 a trend was found to limit park approvals and to focus on accelerating the certification of already approved parks. Eco-industrial parks are located in the most ecologically unfavorable provinces, which indicates a country-wide planned effort to improve the environmental situation with the help of eco-industrial parks. Over the past 5 years, a trend has been revealed to expand the geography of parks. The synthesis of studies on the effectiveness of parks indicate the high potential of parks to create positive economic, production and environmental effects. At the same time, the absence of documented social effects was revealed. The analysis of the eco-industrial park program in China made it possible to formulate recommendations for managing similar programs in Russia.

Modern Challenges of Economic Cooperation between the Republic of Korea and the United States

Alexandra G. Zueva

For the past 20 years, South Korea has successfully balanced between its main trading partners, the US and China. However, with the new president’s accession to power in March 2022, the Republic of Korea has become more and more committed to the US strategic alliance, while not losing interest in trade with China. Washington seeks to use various economic instruments to get the maximum benefit from the alliance with Seoul. The declared areas of strategic partnership within the framework of the US-South Korea alliance are facing a number of challenges provoked by the US protectionist policy and Washington’s desire to maintain influence in key areas. The Republic of Korea is trying to secure comfortable conditions for cooperation, but at the same time, it is gradually adapting to new American requirements. South Korea, like the United States, is striving for leadership in the high-tech market and is currently competing rather than working as a team. Thus, in the future, with continued pressure from Washington, companies in the Republic of Korea may lose their competitive advantages in world markets, and even become completely dependent on the United States. These tendencies lead to the strengthening of the opinion in South Korean society that deep economic integration with America may not be in the national interests of the Republic of Korea.

In the article, the author analyzes the existing challenges in the economic relations between the Republic of Korea and the United States in 2022. In addition, challenges are predicted that can have a greater impact on US-South Korean foreign trade relations in the foreseeable future.

Epoch-Making Triad of Chinese Revolutions

Lyudmila I. Kondrashova

In the Chinese theory of the «triple revolution» the three major stages of the entire period of the PRC’s existence were named as follows: 1) the «revolution of the seizure of power», which led to the overthrow of the old regime and the establishment of a new one; 2) the «revolution of reform», which paved the way for self-improvement and development of the socialist system; 3) a «transitional or transformational revolution», which completes the primary stage of building a socialist society. The dates of the turning points of a revolutionary nature are considered to be 1949 (the proclamation of the PRC), 1978 (the beginning of the policy of «reforms and opening-up»), 2012 (the holding of the 18th Congress of the CPC).

The revolution of 1949 was of a new democratic nature and consolidated a socialist orientation. However, soon after the revolution, during the lifetime of Mao Zedong, the leftist course won and all phases of socialist construction (the policy of «new democracy», socialist transformations and the transition to communism through the «cultural revolution») were passed in an accelerated mode. The program of market reforms and the «mixed economy» launched at the end of 1978 made it possible to increase economic potential and raise living standards, but resulted in a number of negative consequences of the «loss of the banner», i.e. deviation from the ultimate goal of socialist construction. The coming to power of the fifth generation of Chinese leaders in 2012, led by Xi Jinping, was marked by a significant adjustment of the policy of «reform and opening-up» and the implementation of a number of important social transformations, including the fight against corruption and poverty. China’s «own path» can be seen as a transition from «state capitalism» to «market socialism» with features of specific convergence and growing socialism. Given the complexity of China’s current internal and external situation and the difficulties of a «trailblazer,» the implementation of the new strategy will be far from cloudless.

Origins and Development of Japanese Automotive Industry in 1920–1945 (the Case of Toyota Motor Company)

Anna S. Mostovaia

Junior researcher at the Center for Global and Regional Studies of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (89, Pushkinskaya St., Vladivostok, 690001, Russian Federation). ORCID: 0000-0001-6861-4031. Email: kartashema@mail.ru

The paper addresses the issue of Japanese automotive industry development focusing the case of Toyota Motor Company. The historical background effected the emergence of national automakers is described. The main internal and external factors (industrial policy, socio-economic problems, Chino-Japanese and Pacific Wars and etc.) that have influenced the process of establishing of the Japanese automobile industry. The author points out the role of Toyoda Kiichiro, the founder of Toyota Motor Company, who defined the unique approach to company development and managed to adapt its operations to dramatically changing circumstances of wartime economy. The two main periods of company evolution are revealed. The first period characterizes the performance of Toyota as a structural division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Company emphasizing the design of passenger automobile. The second period illustrates the activities of an independent automotive company fully incorporated into a war-oriented economy. It concludes that, state policy towards automotive industry created the favorable environment for national companies.

The role of the Russian Imperial Consulate in Nyuzhuang (Yingkou) in Expanding Trade and Economic Ties between Russia and China from 1906 to 1909

Victoriia G. Sharonova

The article describes the activities of the Imperial Consulate of Russia in Niuzhuang (Yingkou) during the period from 1906 till 1909. One of the priorities of the work of Russian diplomats at that time was the restoration of Russian-Chinese trade and economic relations as the part of the social and cultural policy in South Manchuria. A young diplomat, consul Andrey Terentyevich Belchenko, played a special role in expanding the commercial contacts between Russian and Chinese players. Thanks to the assistance of the Imperial Consulate, the problems associated with the local branch of the Russian-Chinese Bank for the return of allocated funds were resolved. Paying great attention to the promotion of the Russian manufactory in Niuzhuang (Yingkou), Consul Belchenko ordered assistance in this abrupt return of “The company Vikula Morozov with Sons”, “Ivan Konovalov with Son”, “Manufactory of N.N. Konshina «and others. Having visited at the beginning of 1908 Harbin, the Russian consul in Yingkou, had negotiations with Russian merchants who had big business problems due to the consequences of the Russian-Japanese War. In the spring of the same year, Harbin entrepreneurs came to Niuzhuang and made contacts with Chinese partners on the realization of the flour and oil industry. The Imperial Consulate, despite the high competition of the parties with foreign companies (Great Britain, Japan, Germany, etc.), actively promoted the Russian trading company in the inexpensive market, and by the end of 1909, the sale of domestic goods exceeded the pre-war level. The shipping traffic of Russian transport was also restored, which became regular since 1908.

15 Years of Implementation of the Chinese Ancient Books Preservation Plan (2007–2022)

Veronika B. Vinogrodskaya

The article discusses the main directions, results and problems of preserving Chinese ancient books over the past 15 years, starting from 2007, when the first nationwide comprehensive Chinese Ancient Books Preservation Plan came into force. This plan has been implemented over three Five-Year Plan periods — the 11th (2006–2010), the 12th (2011–2015) and the 13th (2016–2020) — in the following areas: search and registration, restoration and storage, digitalization, editing, personnel education, promotion, and Guidelines on Promoting Ancient Books in a New Era were released in 2022. At present, search and registration of ancient books in Chinese has been basically completed: the whole volume of extant Chinese textual culture is about 500 thousand books, with the total number of individual books approaching 3 million in 30 million volumes. Along with the general results in the main areas, the article highlights the activity of individual large institutions (National Library of China, Zhonghua Book Company, Fudan University Library, etc.), expert assessments (Zhang Zhiqing, Deputy Director of the National Library of China, Gu Qing, editor-in-chief of Zhonghua Book Company and others), as well as the personal experience of modern users and participants of textual culture. Particular attention is paid to the current state of digitalization, and to the largest and most representative databases of ancient books (Database of Chinese Classic Ancient Books of NLC, Chinese Classic Ancient Books Database published by Zhonghua Book Company, Airusheng platform, Diaolong database, etc.).