Far Eastern Studies N5, 2023

A new issue of the «Far Eastern Studies» N5, 2023 has been released [e-version].



Goncharov S.N. The Official Position of the People’s Republic of China Regarding the Nature of Relations with the Russian Federation in the Context of the “Special Military Operation” (SMO)


Afonaseva A.V. On the Big Business of the Chinese Diaspora

Aleksakhina S.N. The Revival of China’s Tea Industry during the Years of Reforms

Blokhina T.K., Myslyaeva I.N., Fesyanova O.A., Moshaev I.A., Pavlov I.A. Asian Space Race: New Priorities for Industrial Development of Solar System Bodies

State and Society

Valitova D.V., Kukla M.P. Universal Basic Income in the Republic of Korea: Development of Social Security or Populism?

Theory and Methodology

Vinogradov A.V. The Outside World in China’s Strategy after the 20th CPC Congress

Russian Far East

Krasova E.V., Gorbenkova E.I. Features of the Car Import into Primorsky Region


Zorikhin A.G. The Confrontation between Soviet Intelligence and Japanese Special Agencies on the Eve of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (1945)

Sotnikova I.N. Pages from the History of the Democratic League of China in the Late Republican Period


Guleva M.A. Educational Charities in China: Key Areas of Work and Development Prospects


Li Jing. Religious and Cultural Adaptation of Korean Immigrants in Russia in the Late 19th Century on the Example of Blagoslovennoe Village

Scientific Events

Bazhenova E.S., Ostrovskii A.V. International Scientific and Practical Conference “45 years of Reform and Opening Up in China: Lessons and Prospects”

Book Reviews

Kobzev A.I. Book review: Luo Maoden. The Tale of Zheng He’s Campaign to the Western Ocean: abridged edition in 2 volumes / trans. from Chinese by N.E. Borevskaya. M.: Chance, 2023.

Merkulov K.K. Book Review: CPC Futures. The New Era of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Edited by Frank N. Pieke and Bert Hofman, Singapore: National University of Singapore Press for the East Asian Institute, 2022. VIII, 194 p. Print ISBN: 978–981–185–162–9 (paper); ePDF ISBN: 978–981–185–206–0; ePub ISBN: 978–981–185–163–6

Scholar Jubilee

Anniversary of Andrei Andreevich Krushinsky

Anniversary of Artem Igorevich Kobzev

The Official Position of the People’s Republic of China Regarding the Nature of Relations with the Russian Federation in the Context of the “Special Military Operation” (SMO)

Sergey N. Goncharov

Against the backdrop of unfolding dramatic events related to the «Ukrainian crisis,» significant attention has been drawn to various aspects of China’s policy. This article attempts to delve into the basic elements of the Chinese leadership’s strategy using reliable sources from December 2021 to March 2023. This period encompassed the preparation and execution of Russian President V.V. Putin’s visit to China in February 2022 and Chinese President Xi Jinping’s reciprocal visit to Moscow in March 2023. Chinese accounts of events are compared with official materials on the portals of the Russian President, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as the portals of heads of states and foreign ministries of other countries. It can be stated that throughout this period, topics related to the «Ukrainian crisis» were at the center of attention in Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs briefings, although the focus on this issue somewhat diminished over time. Despite the emergence since April 2022 of increasingly noticeable «pauses» related to Ukraine-related questions, overall, this theme garnered the most attention concerning Beijing’s foreign policy activities during the specified period. The article explores how the leadership of China defines its relations with the Russian Federation in the contemporary stage and how this influences China’s policy regarding the Ukrainian conflict.

On the Big Business of the Chinese Diaspora

Alina V. Afonaseva

The article is devoted to the important scientific problem of assessing the economic resources of the big business of the Chinese diaspora (overseas Chinese, in Chinese: huaqiao-huaren). The author has collected and studied statistical information on large enterprises of overseas Chinese. The author’s sample included 339 large huaqiao-huaren enterprises, for which were available the year of foundation, location of head offices, geography of branches, subsidiaries, main business sectors, market capitalization and enterprises value. The paper analyzes the geographic location and sectoral structure of large enterprises of overseas Chinese. The big capital of the Chinese diaspora is estimated both in nominal terms and in comparison with the volume of accumulated outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) of the PRC, as well as in relation to GDP and Gross fixed capital formation of individual countries and regions.

The author concludes that the big business of the Chinese diaspora is closely connected with the PRC. The big capital of the Chinese diaspora covers at least 117 countries and regions of Asia (50 %), America (43–46 %), Europe (3–4 %), Oceania (more than 1 %) and Africa (about 1 %), and it is a powerful force in the world. This capital is mostly accumulated in the manufacturing industry — more than 65 %, of which 49.6–52.5 % is in the semiconductor industry. This is especially important in connection with the US technological war against the PRC and the ban on the sale of advanced semiconductors and equipment for their production to the PRC. The Chinese diaspora also has its own financial system in the countries and regions of Asia, Europe, America, and Oceania, which also includes the PRC.

The Revival of China’s Tea Industry during the Years of Reforms

Svetlana N. Aleksakhina

The article is devoted to the main problems of the revival of tea production in China in the XXI century. Tea in China is more than a drink. This is the most important element of history and culture, an important article of foreign trade since the time of the Great Silk Road, when there was the so-called Great Tea Road (茶道) — a caravan route that ran in the XVI-XIX centuries between Asia and Europe. In terms of trade turnover, it was the second after the Great Silk Road. Since the beginning of the 80s of the XX century, the promotion of tea culture in the country has been based on traditional foundations. The awakening of interest in tea culture was accompanied by an appeal to some traditional values of Chinese society and their rethinking in the new conditions, which is of great interest to the scientific community both in China and abroad. Currently, China ranks first in the world in terms of tea plantation area and total production, accounting for a fifth of the world’s exports.

The development of the tea industry in China over the past 40 years has demonstrated incredible achievements on all bases participants: from the production of tea leaves to the sale of tea domestically and internationally native markets. However, the tea industry of China, while leading in some positions, is significantly behind in others, in particular, in terms of tea consumption per capita, China is not even among the top ten countries. Among the necessary measures for the development of the tea industry, it is necessary to create a modern infrastructure that ensures the optimal operation of tea plantations, the improvement of the technological process for processing tea collection, the creation of new factories for processing and packaging finished products, as well as new domestic tea brands.

Asian Space Race: New Priorities for Industrial Development of Solar System Bodies

Tatiana K. Blokhina
Irina N. Myslyaeva
Oksana A. Fesyanova
Ilarion A. Moshaev
Ilya A. Pavlov

The article provides an overview of space programs and projects of the countries of the Asia-Pacific region (APR) while assessing their effectiveness and target orientation. The primary focus is on projects related to the industrial development of Solar system bodies. This emphasis leads to the conclusion that space industry aimed at the development and extraction of space resources is emerging. The article highlights the distinguished features of the Asian model of space exploration, which places a greater emphasis on the peaceful use of space and addressing the issue of terrestrial resource depletion. The space programs of China and Japan are considered in detail and an overview of space projects of other countries in the region, including Vietnam, Malaysia, India, Singapore, is made. As part of the analysis of China’s space program, the most significant stages in its implementation and mechanisms ensuring the success of space projects, including a successful combination of state participation and the involvement of private companies in the implementation of space projects, are highlighted. The Japanese experience in the development of space projects and their targeted orientation to the industrial development of Solar system bodies is evaluated. The approaches of other countries of the Asia-Pacific region to the implementation of space projects based on international cooperation and cooperation with more developed countries in space exploration are shown. The special importance of the development of such projects in the space sphere is emphasized due to the fact that they can bring stability to the system of international space security, since they involve to a greater extent the peaceful use of space, focused on overcoming the problem of depletion of terrestrial resources.

Universal Basic Income in the Republic of Korea: Development of Social Security or Populism?

Daria V. Valitova
Marina P. Kukla

Since the 2010s the Republic of Korea is experiencing a wide range of socio-demographic problems — the aging of the population, low birth rate, the destruction of the traditional family structure, inequality, poverty of the elderly, youth unemployment. Every year these problems exacerbate each other, inflaming the discussion in politics and society about the need to develop the social security system. According to OECD standards, social welfare spending in the Republic of Korea remains low, and social policy itself is recognized as ineffective, examples of which are increasing income polarization, poverty and extreme poverty that drives many people to suicide. Social policy cannot solve the primary problem of Korean society — the declining birth rate. The discussion about the development of the social state in ROK, among other things, focuses on the possibilities of the universal basic income — a system that involves unconditional unified payments to every resident of the country. Left-wing parties are increasingly resorting to the topic of the universal basic income in their election programs. The article talks about experiments on the implementation of the universal basic income in the Republic of Korea, analyzes the programs of presidential candidates in 2022. The experiments and election slogans of left-wing politicians are designed primarily to support young people and increase their electoral activity. In addition to the usual conclusion about the immaturity of the social system of ROK by European standards, it is important to understand that awareness of the possibilities of the UBI among the population is also insufficient to play a significant role in the outcome of the elections.

The Outside World in China’s Strategy after the 20th CPC Congress

Andrey V. Vinogradov

Since the beginning of reforms, China’s economic development strategy has been aimed at integrating into the existing international economic order and establishing close cooperation, primarily with developed countries. China was able to effectively use the emerging opportunities of economic globalization and became the second economy in the world, unwittingly challenging the international order that emerged after the collapse of bipolarity. The expansion and deepening of trade and economic ties with most countries of the world and an independent foreign policy have led to increased tension in relations between China and the United States and, at the same time, to increased support for China from developing countries. As a result of economic crises and policies to contain China, the international order based on economic ties began to collapse and be replaced by a geopolitical one. The outside world, from being the most important source of China’s development, which ensured the success of modernization and paved the way for the “Chinese Dream of Great Revival,” is turning into a source of major challenges and threats. The period of China’s relations with the outside world, which began with the Opium Wars, is coming to an end. In the context of growing international tension and renewed East-West confrontation, the nature of China’s relations with the outside world is changing, a new historical cycle of relations and a new stage in China’s development are beginning.

Features of the Car Import into Primorsky Region

Elena V. Krasova
Elizaveta I. Gorbenkova

Primorsky Region is actively involved into foreign trade with neighboring Asian countries. For past 30 years, the Region has been an important trade and logistics link in the chain of Russian automobile imports, and the center for sales and service of imported passenger cars in the Far East. The automobile market in Primorye is developing dynamically under various market factors’ influence. In particular, over the past few months there have been significant changes in the Russian car import that were valid for all market participants – traders, intermediaries, producers-exporters, and greatly influenced volumes, prices, structure, logistics of the car imports. The purpose of the research is actualization of trends in the car import in Primorsky Region and assessment of current events from the point of this sphere’ development. The article generally highlights several stages in the car imports development in Primorsky Region, in particular: it reflects specifics of the Japanese and Korean cars import up to 2021, analyzes recent changes in the regional car market in 2022–2023, considers relevant increase car import from China. The main conclusion of the article is the car market in Primorsky Region that has been formed by 2022 and dealt with trade of second-hand Japanese cars mainly, is gradually turning towards imports from China, accordingly changing the model range of auto products, diversified the pricing policy, expanding logistics for both used and new cars. At the same time, Vladivostok has many reasons to maintain its status as a center of automobile trade in the Far East.

The Confrontation between Soviet Intelligence and Japanese Special Agencies on the Eve of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (1945)

Alexander G. Zorikhin

The article is devoted to the confrontation between Soviet intelligence and Japanese counterintelligence agencies on the eve of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive operation (1945). According to the point of view officially accepted in Russian historical science, the Soviet military, naval and foreign intelligence agencies were able to provide the Headquarters of the Supreme High Command and the General Staff of the Red Army with reliable information about the state of the Japanese grouping of troops in Manchuria and Korea. This became one of the factors of the rapid defeat of the Kwantung army during the Manchurian strategic offensive operation in August 1945. However, the documents put into circulation indicate that, despite the efforts made by the Soviet command to collect intelligence information about the enemy, it had a distorted idea of the combat composition, deployment, number and operational plans of the Japanese troops. The reason for this was the strict counterintelligence and administrative-police regime that Japan established on the territory of Manchuria and Korea that it captured. By the beginning of 1945 there was a passport system, a special regime for staying in the border zone, and military and agent protection of the Soviet-Manchurian border was organized. The diplomatic institutions of the USSR were under close surveillance by Japanese counterintelligence, measures were taken to identify unreliable elements among Russian white emigrants, as a result of punitive operations, the anti-Japanese partisan movement was practically destroyed by 1941. In addition, several well-equipped radio counterintelligence services operated on the territory of Manchuria, which, in cooperation, identified Soviet radio-equipped intelligence groups and, after the arrest of radio operators, conducted radio games.

Pages from the History of the Democratic League of China in the Late Republican Period

Irina N. Sotnikova

This article concerns the origins, development and activities of one of the oldest Chinese democratic parties — the Democratic League of China from its inception to the formation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. New documents and materials discovered in the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, in particular, the Bulletins of the Information Bureau of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks on foreign policy issues, shed light on little-studied questions about the role and place of this democratic organization in the Chinese revolution. Under patriotic slogans, the Democratic League united in its ranks both non-partisan public figures and political parties and groups with various views, from nationalist to pro-communist. Despite the diverse political composition of small parties and groups, the league turned into a coalition trying to find a “third way” between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the ruling Kuomintang party. The growing authoritarianism of the Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek and the implementation of pro-Japanese policies by the Kuomintang members undermined the foundations of the national anti-Japanese united front and undermined the war of resistance. These circumstances repelled the country’s patriotic forces from the Kuomintang. The Kuomintang’s suppression of the democratic movement led to a reorientation of the Democratic League’s policies. The League publicly announced cooperation with the CCP until the complete collapse of the reactionary Kuomintang government, for democracy, peace and independence of the country. The work of the Democratic League helped to unite the broad groups of the population into the patriotic movement for a new China. After the formation of the People’s Republic of China, at the suggestion of Mao Zedong, the league was preserved, its leaders received posts in the government.

Educational Charities in China: Key Areas of Work and Development Prospects

Maria A. Guleva

Following the rapid social and economic development during the period of reform and opening up, a large number of Chinese enterprises and entrepreneurs are increasingly investing in the development of education, sponsoring students and teachers, building schools and helping to develop curricula, thereby not only strengthening the work of the educational system, but also laying the foundation for the development of future science, technology and training for various enterprises.

This article examines the development of the sector of charitable organizations in the field of education in China over the past decade, examines the changes that have occurred in the concept and model of work of these organizations. The work in the field of charity in education is attracting more and more attention from all segments of the population, the number of people covered by their activities is steadily growing. The article presents some key features, problems and prospects for the work of such organizations. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate that the sphere of charity is becoming an integral part of the overall transformation and innovation in Chinese education, which takes place against the backdrop of improving the state educational policy and the development of new technologies. The topics of projects of educational NGOs are becoming more and more saturated. One of the most important and invariable characteristics of the work of charitable organizations is their focus on helping the most needy segments of the population. At the same time, the spheres of influence of organizations cover not only school education, but also go beyond classes and lessons, organizing work between schools, families and the whole society, diversifying the types of work outside the school walls. Changing the concept of education, research and new practices will undoubtedly have a positive impact on the reform of education in not only rural areas of China, but throughout the country as a whole.

Religious and Cultural Adaptation of Korean Immigrants in Russia in the Late 19th Century on the Example of Blagoslovennoe Village

Li Jing

In the second half of the 19th century Russia expanded its territory to the coast of the Sea of Japan and achieved a border with Korea. In the 1860s, a large number of Korean immigrants began to move into the Russian Empire. In 1871, some of them were sent to the Amur Oblast, where a

Korean settlement called Blagoslovennoe was established. Thus, after the wave of resettlement, the imperial authorities tried to integrate the immigrants into Russian society. The spread of Orthodoxy among the Korean immigrants also contributed to their early integration, which was also desired by the majority of the immigrants. The Russian Imperial government used Orthodoxy as a means of cultural adaptation of Korean immigrants in the Far East, and the spread of Orthodoxy among the Korean immigrant community coincided with the desire of most Korean immigrants to integrate into Russian society as soon as possible. To this end, the translation of the worship service into Korean was implemented. This article examines the role of Orthodoxy in the cultural adaptation of Korean immigrants in the Far East. The basis of this study is the found text of the bilingual liturgy used during the services in the church of Blagoslovennoe village. At the same time, despite the processes of adaptation, Koreans strove to preserve their ethnic identity and, above all, their native language. Thus, for example, the Korean settlers retained familiar geographical names not only in their everyday speech, but also in the high language of the liturgy. The study of liturgical texts allows the researcher to understand the process of cultural integration into the new society with the preservation of cultural identity.