Far Eastern Studies N4, 2021

A new issue of the «Far Eastern Studies» N3, 2021 has been released [e-version].


Round Table

Round table «Russian-Chinese Relations in a New Era: New Problems — New Vectors of Interaction»


Afonaseva A.V. Overseas Chinese Policy of the PRC from Jiang Zemin to Xi Jinping (Part 1)

Dikarev A.D. On the History of Formation of Modern Taiwan Stance on the Rights to Maritime Features and Area in the South China Sea

Prozorovsky А.S. North Korea: What is the Direction of Further Evolution


Bazhenova E.S., Ostrovskii A.V. How Many People Live in China? The Results of the 2020 Population Census

Makarov A.V., Makarova E.V. China—Mongolia—Russia Economic Corridor Program: Problems and Prospects for Implementation

Emelyanova O.N. The Problem of Energy Transition in Japan and Its Solution

Prokhorova N.V. Building a Water-saving Society in Rural Areas of the PRC During the 13 th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020)

State and Society

Troshchinskiy P.V. New China’s First Civil Code: Problems of Theory and Practice

View Point

Asmolov K.V., Zakharova L.V. Problems and Prospects for the DPRK’s Development: Forecasting Model-2021


Sotnikova I.N. The Contribution of Russian Historians to the Source Study of the First Period of the History of the Communist Party of China in 1921–1949


Aleksakhin A.N. «Pinyin Zimu Project» – is a Landmark Event in the History of Chinese Civilization Initiated and Supported by the CPC

Zavyalova O.I. Language Diversity of China and National Security


Blazhkina A.Yu. Concept of Great Unity (da tong) in the Confucian Treatise “Kong-zi jia yu”

Scholar Jubilee

Jubilee of Lyudmila Dmitrievna Boni

75th anniversary of Andrey Sergeevich Davydov

Overseas Chinese Affairs Policy of the PRC from Jiang Zemin to Xi Jinping (Part 1)

Alina V. Afonaseva

The article is devoted to the PRC’s overseas Chinese affairs policy during the reign of Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao, and Xi Jinping (1993 — present). During this period, the previously created mechanisms of foreign policy towards overseas Chinese (huaqiao-huaren) and domestic policy towards re-emigrants and relatives of emigrants and re-emigrants (guiqiao-qiaojuan) became a flexible system, which can adapt to the Chinese and international reality, and effectively attracting the resources of the diaspora to the implementation of large-scale projects and initiatives of the PRC.

The first part of the article analyzes the theoretical views and attitudes of Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao, and Xi Jinping to work with the Chinese diaspora. It presents the theory of overseas Chinese as a unique resource and advantage for the large-scale development of the PRC; as a “three great available opportunities” for building a moderately prosperous society, combating separatism, developing public diplomacy; as an important part of foreign relations of China and as a supporting force for the stimulation the state’s development. It outlines the guiding ideologies, key principles, and objectives of this work. It analyzes the main directions of foreign policy towards overseas Chinese. The author focuses on the issues of protecting the rights and interests of compatriots abroad, uniting the Chinese diaspora, attracting huaqiao-huarento the development of trade and economic cooperation of the PRC with foreign states and business, and organizing the participation of huaqiao-huaren in the reunification of the motherland.

The second part of the article is devoted to the analysis of the domestic policy towards overseas Chinese.

On the History of Formation of the Modern Taiwan Stance on the Rights to Maritime Features and Area in the South China Sea

Andrey D. Dikarev

The article highlights the history of formation of the official Taiwanese discourse on the problems of territorial affiliation and legal claims to the islands in the South China Sea. Two leading political parties of Taiwan (the Guomindang and DPP) have substantial differences in their approach to the sovereignty on the features in the SCS and “historical rights” to the sea. Details are given about reasons for emergence and disappearance of the concept of «historical waters» in the Taiwanese law, which allegedly should have been subject to the jurisdiction of the Republic of China. Taiwan’s activities on the two features in the SCS aimed at demonstrating their «effective occupation» are highlighted. The official stance of different administrations and its changes are considered in detail. While sharing the same approach to the status of Taiping island, the Guomindang and DPP disagree on affiliation of all other land features in the SCS. When considering the interpretation of the notorious «U-shaped line» by Taiwanese politicians, a conclusion is made about the actual proximity of the foreign policy stances of the PRC and the Guomindang, which are based on the idea of the common Chinese identity, revealed by a significant part of the Taiwan inhabitants. As for the approach of DPP to the problem of the SCS, the determining factor here is the Taiwanese identity of its supporters. This further complicates the situation: the DPP, on the one hand, proclaims sovereignty over all the SCS facilities to demonstrate unity with the PRC on the issue of China’s territorial integrity, on the other hand — pragmatically recognizes the impossibility of actual exercising its nominal sovereignty over the disputed territories. Thus an obvious contradiction between theory and practice in the Taiwanese policy is revealed. The nuances of Taiwan’s attitude to the award of the Hague Tribunal on the Philppines vs China case are elucidated. The reasons of the Tribunal’s refusal to provide the status of island to the biggest feature in Nansha group are determined.

Северная Корея: каков вектор дальнейшей эволюции?

Anatoly S. Prozorovsky

The article analyzes the changes that have occurred in the DPRK economy during the years of Kim Jong-un’s rule. The article considers the significant shifts that have taken place in the direction of a market economy, both in industry and in agriculture. At the same time, it is noted that market innovations are officially presented under the guise of elements of self-financing and the further development of socialism. Not all of the functioning market schemes have received the appropriate legislative formalization and, thus, remain illegal, although they are widely used in practice.

Nevertheless, the country has been successfully developing for a number of years, demonstrating steady economic growth, a construction boom, the widespread introduction of information technologies, as well as significant progress in rocket science and the improvement of the nuclear arsenal. Numerous missile tests in 2017 led to a sharp aggravation of the situation on the peninsula, tightening of international sanctions, slowing down development and freezing further «reforms».

Kim Jong-un’s attempts to find a way out of the current situation through initiating a negotiation process with the ROK and the United States undoubtedly contributed to reducing tension in the region, however, in general, they were not crowned with success. The course to create a self-sufficient economy with the appearance of the threat of COVID-19 was accomplished with a regime of severe self-isolation.

In conclusion, considerations are expressed regarding the ways of further development of North Korea. It is predicted that the role of the state will increase in the economic life of the country, which, after a series of successes and achievements, has found itself in the most difficult situation in the last twenty years.

How Many People Live in China? The Results of the 2020 Population Census

Elena S. Bazhenova
Andrei V. Ostrovskii

The article is devoted to a topical issue — population problem of China and shows a picture of demographic situation and dynamics of demographic in dices for the last decades building on new statistical data, which are results of the 2020 Population Census of the People’s Republic of China. These data is a basis for conclusion, that under the influence of changing social and economic conditions and state population policy population reproduction experienced cardinal alterations. The most serious alteration is rapid population ageing as a result of demographic policy since the end of 70’s “one family — one child”.

It seems necessary for China to put forward the decision of the CC CPC Political Bureau (May, 2021) about regulation of the population age structure at the expense of the third child in the family. The next decision about elimination of all limits for a number of children in the family is quite up to the mark, because it helps to block population ageing and to increase a share of economically active population by 2035. But now a large number of Chinese families, especially urban families, are not ready to have more than one child by some reasons, for example, growing costs for education of children, obstacles for their careers and other reasons. The authors of the article on the basis of the preliminary data of the 2020 Population Census came to the conclusion, that further success of China’s social and economic development will be connected with solving demographic problems in China in the next decade.

China — Mongolia — Russia Economic Corridor Program: Problems and Prospects for Implementation

Alexander V. Makarov
Elena V. Makarova

The 100-th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Russia and Mongolia, which the two neighboring countries will celebrate on November 5, 2021, gives a serious reason to assess the current state of bilateral cooperation, existing problems and prospects for its development.

In recent years, the issues of intensification of Russian-Mongolian relations have been considered in the context of the trilateral «Program for the creation of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor». Despite the lack of concrete results within the framework of this program, the implementation of a number of infrastructure projects is being prepared, which will seriously strengthen the economic base of cooperation of Russia with Mongolia and China.

The paper analyzes the problematic issues of the implementation of plans for the development of transport and energy infrastructure through Mongolia, which are considered as the basis for trilateral cooperation. Particular attention is paid to plans for the development of the railway network. The promising directions for the development of cross-border infrastructure in the framework of the program for the creation of the Mongolian corridor are identified.

The paper was prepared within the framework of the state assignment of the Baikal Institute of Nature Management of the SBRAS (No. AAAA-A21–121011590039–6) and with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 19–014–00002).

The Problem of Energy Transition in Japan and Its Solution

Olesya N. Emelyanova

Currently, the socio-economic development of the leading countries, which are developing today in the paradigm of the capitalist industrial system, is undergoing a structural crisis. At the same time, global environmental problems are seriously rising, meanwhile electricity consumption is rapidly increasing, which in traditional modern paradigm means an increase in demand for non-renewable energy sources. Japan in this situation is no exception. Moreover, the structural crisis of the existing economic structure has become noticeable in Japan since 1991, when the so-called «Bubble crisis» occurred, after which the country could not return to sustainable economic growth during its industrial heyday. Today, Western countries and Japan see «energy transition» as a comprehensive solution for which measures are being developed for the transition to renewable energy sources (RES), including hydrogen fuel, which in the future can become the most important resource for a successful transition to the digital age.

The main document that today regulates the strategy of Japan’s energy transition is the «Basic Energy Plan» of 2003, the latest 5th addition of which was adopted in 2018. The main goal of the strategy is to significantly reduce hydrocarbon emissions into the atmosphere. The document presents a roadmap for the country’s gradual movement towards achieving carbon neutrality and contains development recommendations until 2030 and 2050. Another important document is the «Green Growth Strategy through Achieving Carbon Neutrality in2050» (2020).

This article aims to identify the main factors, as well as to analyse the perspectives for Japan’s energy transition in the short term.

Building a Water-saving Society in Rural Areas of the PRC During the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020)

Natalia V. Prokhorova

Until recently, traditional methods of farming in the PRC required a much larger volume of water consumption than is necessary when irrigating individual crops, but in the 21st century, the situation began to change gradually. The modern level of technologies and measures taken for agricultural water conservation allows to control water consumption precisely. In the article measures taken for monitoring water consumption in the agricultural sector and associated transformations of the economic activities of modern Chinese villages are considered.

New China’s First Civil Code: Problems of Theory and Practice

Pavel V. Troshchinskiy

On January the 1st, 2021, the first Civil Code in the history of the People’s Republic of China took effect. The process of codification of civil legislation began in the PRC back in the 1950s. However, due to various circumstances, the Code wasn’t adopted during the 20th century. Only in virtue of the initiative of Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, the work on the content of a large codified act of civil law was successfully completed and the Chinese parliament approved the Code in May 2020. A kind of «economic constitution», which is understood as the Civil Code, is designed to regulate a wide range of civil law relations, comprehensively protect the legal rights and interests of a wide range of participants. The emergence of the Civil Code in the legal system of China was a major event in the history of the country, it was carried out as a part of a large scale campaign to strengthen the rule of law and rule the state on the basis of the law. The content of the Civil Code of the PRC is of significant theoretical and practical interest both for the Russian legal and sinological sciences, and for all compatriots working with China and in China. The research of the Code requires a deep immersion in the Chinese political and legal reality, an understanding of the foundations of public administration in a new era, and also an awareness of the specifics of legal culture, the legal consciousness of Chinese citizens and law enforcement practice.

Problems and Prospects for the DPRK’s Development: Forecasting Model-2021

Konstantin V. Asmolov
Liudmila V. Zakharova

Since the 1990s, there have been many publications predicting an imminent «collapse of the North Korean regime» or a shift of the country’s political vector. However, this has not happened so far, and the DPRK’s political regime continues to exist. What leads to such chronically unrealistic forecasts for North Korea, and what are alternative options for the future of this country in the short and medium term?

Revising a number of unfulfilled predictions, the authors try to explain the reason for these failures. They are usually closely related to an ideological framework, lack of information and dependence on certain sources, which leads to an underestimation of the DPRK’s capabilities and misinterpretation of data, when any event is seen as a sign of the regime’s imminent collapse. Using the theoretical approaches of G. Tallok and V.I. Lenin, the article identifies the main types of threats to the current political regime (external invasion, a coup within the elite, economic collapse, mass protests), as well as the likelihood of their implementation under the current policies of the DPRK leadership.

The authors describe several development scenarios based on an analysis of factors that can affect the situation in North Korea in the short and medium terms. The option of maintaining the status quo with the current ruling elite staying in power is ranked first in terms of likelihood. Less likely scenarios include “sinofication” due to Beijing’s growing influence on Pyongyang, military escalation leading to an armed conflict on the Korean Peninsula, political and economic crisis.

The Contribution of Russian Historians to the Source Study of the First Period of the History of the Communist Party of China in 1921–1949

Irina N. Sotnikova

The article is dedicated to determining the contribution of Russian Sinologists to the practice of introducing historical sources into scientific circulation in the history of the Communist Party of China in 1921–1949. The documents of the CPC and the Comintern are the most important sources for studying the process of the formation and evolution of the party, its transformation process. Formation of the source studies of the history of the party began shortly after the foundation of the CPC and was associated, first of all, with the collecting documents by the country’s Sinology centers and the integration of historical sources into scientific practice. Sinology organizations were involved in the publication of source documents and materials on the history of the Chinese Communist Party. Along with the changes in the political situation, the national Sinology was reorganized, as well as the centers for studying the national revolutionary movement in China. Scholars of a number of research centers, especially the team of historians of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies of the Soviet/Russian Academy of Sciences have made a significant contribution to the source studying of the history of the CPC.

«Pinyin Zimu Project» – is a Landmark Event in the History of Chinese Civilization Initiated and Supported by the CPC

Alexey N. Aleksakhin

The Creation of the alphabet and words spelling of the Chinese Mandarin language (Pinyin zimu project) is a landmark event in the history of Chinese civilization. It breathes new life into ancient Chinese characters. The Great Dumb − the Chinese character has spoken − for the the whole world for the first time since 1958 with the sounds of Beijing speech. Today the two types of writing − Chinese Mandarin traditional ideographic and innovative phonographic writing, in their unity, provide the linguocultural unity of the Chinese society and the progress of science and technology of China. Millions of people in China and beyond are studying the Chinese language based on the sound letter standard of the words of Chinese Putonghua. Letter orthogramms of Chinese words provide tele- and Internet communication of hundreds of millions of Chinese. In the 20 century the first Latinized alphabet for the Chinese language was created with the leading participation of one of the founders and leaders of the CPC, Qu Qiubo, (included in the official list of «The 100 Greatest Figures of New China») under the influence of the experience of creating alphabets for the peoples of the USSR in 1921–26. The Chinese alphabet, based on Latin letters and letter-spelling forms of Putonghua words is a huge scientific achievement of Chinese linguists. An outstanding contribution to the creation of the alphabet and letter words of Chinese Mandarin was made by a brilliant Chinese linguist Zhou Youguang (1906–2017), called the «father of pinyin zimu» or Chinese alphabet in China. The top leaders of the Communist Party of China, Mao Tsedong, Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi led the creation of the «pinyin» alphabet. The political will and wisdom of the CPC’s senior leadership, combined with the creative genius of Chinese linguists, ensured the creation of a letter writing for the people of China, which was «an epochal event in the history of the development of Chinese civilization».

Language Diversity of China and National Security

Olga I. Zavyalova

China with its dozens of languages of national minorities and numerous Chinese dialects is still a linguistically very diverse country, and this diversity regularly finds its reflection during the events in various regions. In 2020, medical teams sent to Wuhan during the coronavirus outbreak faced difficulties with understanding the patients speaking local Mandarin dialects. Later on, language problems in Wuhan were urgently solved by the local administration. Starting from 2019, language confrontation became more visible during the protests in Hong Kong. Already in 2021, a volume devoted to the complicated language situation in the recently created economic cluster of the Greater Bay Area, which is to combine Hong Kong and Macau with nine cities across the Pearl River Delta, was published in the series of the annual reports of the State Language Commission. According to the model proposed by the linguists, Standard Chinese is to become the main spoken language both within the Greater Bay area and in contacts with other regions of China. Cantonese is to be used only as an additional local means of communication, while English and partially Portuguese in Macao are to be preserved as the languages of contacts with foreign countries. New structures are to be created with the help of the latest information technologies and participation of the linguists to solve various problems of the economic cluster. Language unity as a whole is considered to be a key guarantee of the national security of China.

Concept of Great Unity (datong) in the Confucian Treatise “Kong-zi jia yu”

Anastasia Yu. Blazhkina

This article analyzes the concept of Great Unity (da tong), textually enshrined in the treatise “Kong-zi jia yu”, chapter “Li yun”. The concept of Great Unity is considered by Confucian thinkers as the ideal state in which the Tianxia was in the period of golden antiquity, and when socio-political space had a virtuous governance that involved both spiritual and material prosperity. The Great Unity is a society of ontological freedom that draws closer to the Confucian ideas of «following the middle» (zhong yong). The Great Unity is understood as a state of aspiration for the common good, and of leveling the desire for individual benefit. Great Unity is the highest stage of the socio-political reformation of the Middle Kingdom for the Confucian tradition. This concept is directly related to the modern political culture of China. It was embodied in the idea of a «Community of Shared Future for Mankind,» which was first introduced at the 18th National Congress of the CPC in November 2012 by the General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Xi Jinping. Within the framework of this article, there is a preliminary comparison of the chapter “Li yun” from the text “Kong-ji jia yu” and the chapter of the same name from the famous written monument, named “Li ji”; the article also discloses the main ideological content of this chapter. The chapter «Li yun» from the Confucian treatise «Kong-ji jia yu» is considered by the author of this article as a new, little-studied source for the study of the early Confucian tradition. This chapter reflects the deep theoretical content of the entire written monument «Kong-ji jia yu» and is of value to all historical and philosophical science.